The syllabi for different subjects for Banastahli Ph.D. Entrance Test (RET)

The syllabi for different subjects for Banastahli Ph.D. Entrance Test (RET)

(including their research aptitude components) is given below.

Please refer to the appropriate syllabus related to your proposed research area



1. Geographical Thought: General character of geographic knowledge during the ancient and medieval period; foundations of modern geography; Determinism, Possibilism and Neo determinism; Areal differentiation and Spatial organization; Quantitative revolution, Behaivourlism and Radicalism.


2. Geomorphology : Fundamental concepts; Origin of the earth, Geological time scale, Plate tectonics, Diastrophism; Interior of the earth , Rocks; Concept of geomorphic cycle; Earthquake and Volcanism, Weathering, Erosion, Mass wasting,  Landforms associated with Fluvial, Glacial, Arid, Coastal and Karst process.

3. Climatology: Composition and structure of the atmosphere; Insolation, Heat budget of the earth; Distribution of temperature; Atmospheric pressure and General circulation of winds; Monsoon and Jet stream; Humidity, Condensation and Precipitation; Hydrological Cycle, Air-masses and Fronts; Cyclones and Anti cyclones;  Classification of world climates; Koppen's and Thornthwaite's schemes.

4. Oceanography: Hypsometric curve, Ocean bottom relief of Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean; Temperature, Salinity and Density of the oceanic water; Circulation of oceanic water; Ocean deposits; Coral reefs, El Nino and La Nino.

5. Environment and Bio-Geography: Ecology and Ecosystem; Food-chain; Food-web; Energy flow, Gaseous and Sedimentary cycle; Environmental degradation and pollution; Conservation and management of environment.

Soil types, Soil profile and distribution of major soils; World distribution of plants and animal, Major biomes of the world.

6. Population Geography: Density, distribution, and growth of world population; Patterns and processes of migration, General law's of migration; Demographic transition, population problems and policies.

7. Settlement Geography: Origin, Site, Situation, Types, Size, Spacing and Internal morphology of rural and urban settlement; Urbanization, Functional classification of cities; Umland; Conurbaration; Primate city;  Christaller's Central place theory; Theories of Hoyet, Burgess, Ullman and Harris; Rural-Urban fringe;  Slums.

 8. Agriculture Geography: Factors affecting agriculture, Major crops- cereal and cash crops, Livestock Ranching, commercial dairy farming; Viticulture, Horticulture, Sericulture, Apiculture, Whittlesey's classification of agriculture, Green Revolution, Measurement of agricultural productivity and efficiency; Crop combination and diversification; Von Thunen's Model.

9. Economic Geography: Sectors of Economy: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary Quaternary; Classification, degradation and conservation of natural resources.

10. Industrial Geography: Classification of industries, manufacturing industries; Weber's and Losch's approaches; Resource based and footloose industries; Major industrial regions of world.

11. Transport and Trade Geography: Modes of transportation and transportation cost: Accessibility and Connectivity; Types of trade; Major organizations of trade (WTO, SAARC, ASIAN, European Union, OPEC, NAFTA).

12. Political Geography: Concept of Geopolitics, Geo-politic of Indian Ocean, State and Nation, Boundaries and frontiers; Buffer zones; Concept of Core area and Fedrelism, Heartland and Rimland theories.

13. Social and Cultural Geography: Ethnicity; dialect; language; caste and religion; Races: Distribution and criteria for classification according to Griffth Taylor, Habitat, Socio-economic environment of major Tribal Groups (Masai, Eskimos, Khirgis, Bushman, Pigmies), Concept of social well being.

14. Regional Planning: Concept of Region, Delineation of Region; Types of regions; Concept of Planning; Need of regional planning; Regional planning in India;  Indicators of development, Regional Imbalances.

15. Geography of India: Physiographic divisions; Drainage system, Climate, Soil and Vegetations, Agriculture, Major Minerals and Power resources, major industries and industrial regions; Demographic structure, Major tribes (Naga, Bhil, Meena, Gujjar & Bakarwal, Santhal, Toda).

16. Cartography: Tools and techniques of cartography; Map projection, Types of maps: Qualitative and Quantitative, Representation of statistical data (Graphs and Diagrams) and flow maps, profiles.

17. Statistical Methods: Data source and types of data, Frequency distribution; Measures of central tendency; Measures of dispersion and concentration, Simple and Multiple correlation; Regression; Nearest-neighbour analysis; Sampling techniques for Geographical analysis.

18. Aerial Photographs and Remote Sensing : Nature and Types of Aerial Photographs; scale determination, Identification and interpretation of aerial photographs; Introduction of Remote sensing; Sensors; Satallites; Development of remote sensing in India; Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Global positioning system (GPS).


Remote Sensing


Multiple Choice/Objective Questions

75 Questions @1 marks each

Descriptive Questions

5 Questions @ 5 marks each - Answer limited to 30 words

(a)    Research Aptitude

Definition of Research Problem, Identification of problems of regional and local level, Considerations in selection of problem, Research process, Review of literature, Research objectives, Hypothesis and models, Research scheme/design.

(b)   General Awareness

Science, Environment, Current Affairs (Science, Social needs, technology and related)

(c)    Quantitative Techniques

Elementarily Statistics: Mean, Median, Mode, SD, Variance covariance, Z score, Conceptual hypothesis testing

(d)   Subject Related

Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR): EMR spectrum and its properties, wavelength regions, Indian Space programme Space based platforms (optical, infrared, thermal, microwave)

Fundamentals of aerial photography, Types of aerial photographs: Vertical and Oblique aerial photography,

Basic concepts of spatial information, GIS, Variables- Points, Arc/Lines, Polygon/Areas, geographical data, model and data input

Cartographic concepts, Type of maps, Topographic features, Map Scale and Map Projection

Basics of Global Positioning System,

Principles of computing, Computer system architecture -Basic computer organization, CPU, ALU, I/O Units, CU, Types of memory (RAM/ROM) Concepts about digital image and its characteristics, Spectral, Spatial, Radiometric and Temporal resolution, Visual vs. Digital methods, Image data storage and retrieval.

Applications in land and water resource, disaster management, urban and environmental planning.




Part- A: Teaching and Research Aptitute

The main objective is to assess the teaching and research capabilities of the candidates. Therefore, the test is aimed at assessing the teaching and general/research aptitude as well as their awareness. They are expected to possess and exhibit cognitive abilities. Cognitive abilities include comprehension, analysis, evaluation, understanding, the structure of arguments and deductive and inductive reasoning. The Candidates are also expected to have a general awareness and knowledge of sources of information. They should be aware of interaction between people, environment and natural resources and their impact on quality of life. The details are given in the following sections:


I.                    Teacher Aptitude

·         Teaching: Nature, objectives, characteristics and basic requirements;

·         Learner’s characteristics;

·         Factors affecting teaching;

·         Methods of teaching’

·         Teaching aids’

·         Evaluation systems.


II           Research Aptitute

·         Research: Meaning , characteristics and types;

·         Steps of research;

·         Methods of research;

·         Research Ethics;

·         Paper, article, workshop, seminar, conference and symposium;

·         Thesis writing; its characteristics and format.


III    Reading Comprehension

·         A passage to be set with questions to be answered.


IV    Communication

·         Communicatio: Nature, characteristics, types, barriers and effective classroom communication.


V     Reasoning (Including Mathematical)

·         Number series; Letter series; codes;

·         Relationship; classification.


VI    Logical Reasoning

·         Understanding the structure of arguments;

·         Evaluating and distinguishing deductive and inductive reasoning;

·         Verbal analogies: Word analogy- Applied analogy;

·         Verbal classification;

·         Reasoning Logical Diagrams: Simple diagrammatic relationship, multidiagrammatic relationship;

·         Venn diagram; Analytical Reasoning.


VII  Data Interpretation

·         Source, acquisition and interpretation of data;

·         Quantitative and qualitative data;

·         Graphical representation and mapping of data.


VIII Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

·         ICT: meaning, advantages, disadvantages and uses;

·         General abbreviations and terminology;

·         Basics of internet and e-mailing.


IX    People and Environment

·         People and environment interaction;

·         Sources of pollution;

·         Pollutants and their impact on human life, exploitation of natural and energy resources;

·         Natural hazards and mitigation.


X     Higher Education System: Governance, Polity and Administration

·         Structure of the institutions for higher learning and research in India; formal and distance education; professional/technical and general education; value education; governance, polity and administration; concept, institutions and their interaction.


Part –B: Education

Philosophical foundation of Education


Relationship of Education and Philosophy


Western Schools of Philosophy: Idealism, Realism, Naturalism, Pragmatism, Existentialism, Marxmism with special reference to the concepts of knowledge, reality and values their educational implications for aims, contents and methods of education.


Indian Schools of Philosophy (Sankhya, Vedanta, Yoga, Nyaya Traditions)with special reference to the concept of knowledge, reality and values and their educational implications.


Contributions of Vivekananda, Tagore, Gandhi and Aurobindo to educational thinking.


National values as enshrined in the Indian Constitution, and their educational implications.


Philosophical Inquiry in Education: Nature and Scope, Steps, Philosophical inquiry of current educational issues.


Sociological Foundations of Education


            Relationship of Sociology and Education

            Meaning and nature of Educational sociology and Sociology of education

            Education- as a social sub-system-specific characteristics

            Education and the home

            Education  and the community with special reference to Indian society

            Education and modernization

            Education politics

            Education  and religion

            Education and culture

            Education and democracy     

            Socialization of the child

            Meaning and nature of social change

            Education as related to social stratification and social mobility

            Education as related to social equity and equality of educational opportunities

            Constraints on  social change in India (caste, ethnicity, class, language, religion,


            Education of the socially and economically disadvantaged sections of the society

            with special reference to scheduled castes and scheduled tribes, women and rural



Psychological Foundation of  Education


1          Relationship of Education and Psychology

2          Process of Growth and development

            -           Different stages of development Infancy, childhood, Adolescent, Adult

                        and old age.

            -           Different aspects of development- Physical, Social, emotional and


            -           Piaget’s Cognitive development theory

            -           Erickson’s Socio-Emotional development theory

3          Individual differences

            -           Concept & Types of Individual differences.

            -           Areas of individual differences

                        Intelligence- Concept –types theories and measurement

                        Aptitude-concept features and measurement

                        Interest-concept,  features and measurement

                        Creativity-concept, features and measurement

                        Personality-type and Trait theory and measurement

                        Attitude –concept, features and measurement

                        Adjustment- concept measurement and defense mechanisms.

4          Learning

            -Theories of Learning: Thorndike’s connectionism

                                                Pavlov’s classical and Skinner’s Operant conditioning

                                                Gestalt theory of Learning, Hull’s reinforcement theory,

                                                Social CognitiveTheory A. Bandura.

            -           Factors influencing learning

            -           Transfer of learning and its theories

5          Motivation

            -           Concept, determinants and types

            -           Maslow’s need theory, MC Cuelend’s n-ach motivation theory

6          Group Dynamics

            Meaning of Group, Features of class group

            Role of Teacher in developing positive class room  climate.


Methodology of Educational Research


            Nature and scope of Education Research

            Meaning and Nature

            Need and Purpose

            Scientific Inquiry and Theory Development-some emerging trends in research F   Fundamental-Applied and Action Research


            Fomulation of Research Problem

            Criteria and sources for identifying the problem

            Delineating and Operationalizing variables

            Developing assumptions and hypothesis in various types of research


            Collection of Data

            Concept of population and sample

            Various methods of sampling

            Characteristics of a good sample


            Tool and Techniques

            Characteristics of a good research tool

            Types of research tools and techniques and their uses

            Questionnaire-Interviews- Observations

            Tests and scales, projective and sociometric techniques


            Major Approaches to Research

            Positivistic and Phenomenological

            Descriptive research

            Ex-post facto Research

            Laboratory Experiment

            Field Experiment

            Field Studies

            Historical Research


            Analysis of Data

                        Quantitative and Qualitative

                        Descriptive (data analysis Tabulation of Data, Graphical Representation,

                        Measures of Central  Tendency, Deviation and relative position)  and

                        inferential Statistics. The null hypothesis , test of  significance, types of

                        error, one-tailed and two tailed tests.

                        The t-test

                        The F-test (ANOVA)

                        Non-parametric tests (chi-square test, Mann-Witney’s U-test)

                        Rank Difference, Product moment & Partial correlations

                        Content Analysis, Trend Analysis, Secondary data analysis

                        Use of Computer in data analysis

                        Research Report writing


Educational Technology


Meaning and Scope of Educational Technology

-                      educational technology as systems approach to education

-                      systems approach in educational technology and its characteristics

-                      components of educational technology, software, hardware

Multi-media approach in Educational Technology

Modelities of Teaching–difference between teaching and instruction, conditioning and training.

Stages of teaching-pre-active, interactive and post-active.

Teaching at different levels-memory, understanding and reflective

Modification of teaching behaviour: Microteaching, Flander’s Interaction Analysis, simulation


Programmed Instruction (Origin, types, liner and branching, development of programmed instruction material-linear/branching model.

Computer assisted instruction


Models of Teaching: Concept, different families of teaching models


Designing Instructional system

-                      formulation of instructional objectives

-                      task analysis

-                      designing of instructional strategies, such as lecture, team teaching, discussion, panel discussion, seminars and tutorials.


            Communication Process: Concept of communication, Principles, Modes and

           Barriers of communication, Classroom communication (interaction verbal and



           Distance Education: Concept, Different contemporary systems, viz.,

           Correspondance, Distance and open; Student support services; Evaluation

          Strategies in Distance Education: Counceslling Methods in Distance Education.


          Development of Evaluation Tools-Norm-referenced and criterion-referenced tests.



Educational Guidance and Counselling


·         Concept, Principles, need and objectives of Guidance and Counselling

·         Types of Guidance and Counselling

            - Educational   – Vocational    - Personals

·         Guidance Services- Individual, Information, Counselling, Placement & follow-up        

·         Organisation of Guidance Services at different levels of Education

·         Guidance Activities- updating Bulletin Board, Career day celebration. Information corner, career talk and conferences.

·         Problems & Researches of Guidance in India.

·         Tools and Techniques of Assessment in Guidance and Counselling, records, scales, Non-standardized Techniques,  Standardized and Projective Tests.

·         Approaches of Counseslling: Person centered, Cognitive Behavioural & Psycho dynamic.

·         Values and Ethics in Counselling practise

·         Concept & need of Individual & Group Counselling.

·         Conditions for counseling relationship

·         Counselling process & Counselling-interview

·         Limitation of Individual and Group Counselling.


Teacher Education


1          Development of Teacher Education: a historical view

            -           Pre-independence- Ancient period, medieval period and British period.

            -           Post-independence

                        Before education policy 1968

                        Before education policy 1986

                        Before and after NCTE establishment.

2          Objectives and organisation of curriculum of teacher education at-

            -           elementary level

            -           secondary level

            -           college level

3          Types of teacher education programmes and agencies:

            -           Inservice teacher education-DIETs, CTEs,IASE,ASCs,CCRT,NCERT and


            -           Preservice teacher education-meaning and purpose

                        -           Inputs and Evaluation procedure in preservice T.E. programme i.e.

                                    theoretical  and practical, adequacy and effectiveness with respect

                                    to field requirement

                        -           Various types of Administrative structure in TE-

                                         -State level,            -University level,         - College level

                        -           Expectations of T.E. Programme with reference to teacher, learner,

                                   Institution and Society.

            -           Distance education and teacher education- Main criticism & achievement.

4          NCTE- Purpose, expectations and functions

            -           Teaching Practices in  Teacher Education Programme

                        -Micro-Teaching, Block Teaching, MPT (Management of Practice


            -           Emerging role of media in Teacher Education-

                        -importance of media, kinds of media and media resource centre

            -           Researches in Teacher Education

                        -major areas of researches; present scenario of researches in Teacher


            -           Significant issues in Teacher Education Programme

                        - Professional ethics

                        -Quality assurance in Teacher Education programme

            -Theory- Practice Nexus

            -Co-coordinating the variety of programmes at different levels.    






NOTE:  Syllabi consist of three Groups.


   Group A is compulsory

Choose either of group B or C

Group - A

1         Research methods and applied statistics (Compulsory)

2         Test, measurement and evaluation in Physical Education & Sports Sciences. (Compulsory)


Group - B

1         Scientific fundamentals of Physical Education


Group - C

1         Behavioral fundamentals of Physical Education & Sports Sciences.


Group - A


I. Research methods and applied statistics (Compulsory).


1. Need for research in Physical Education and Sports.

2. Its Purposes, Types

3. Scope of research in Physical Education and Sports

4. Defining and formulating the research problem.

5. Criteria of a research problem

6. Review of related literature & Sources of literature

7. Formulation of Hypothesis, Significance of Hypothesis & Testing of Hypothesis

8. Research design and sampling design.

9. Data analysis and research reporting

10. Definitions, meaning and scope of statistics in research in Physical Education and Sports

11. Statistical data and its organization

12. Frequency distribution, Graphical representation of data

13. Measures of Central tendency, dispersion and relationship

14. Norms and their uses Measures of relative position

15. Correlation and regression

16. Analysis of variance (ANOVA)


II. Test measurement and evaluation in physical education and sport sciences


1. Need for Tests, measurement and evaluation in Physical Education.

2. Tests of Physical Fitness, Motor Fitness and Motor ability skill and knowledge tests.

3. Anthropometric measurement and their importance.

4. Criteria of a good test. Test Administration.

A) Physical fitness test :

     a) Strength test :

Kraus- Weber test, Sergeant test, Rogers strength test,

      b) Motor fitness test:

J.C.R. Test, AAHPER Youth fitness Test., N.P.F.D.

       c) Cardio Vascular Test :

Harward Step test, Tuttle pulse Ratio test, Coppers 12 minutes

run & Walk test, Blood pressure measurements, Treadmill test.

B) General Motor Ability tests :

Barrow Motor ability test, Iowa Brace test, cozens test for general

Athletic ability.

Measurements of height and weight, Use of skin fold calipers, Body

diameter measurements, Measurements of body composition.

C) The Measurements of Posture :

Iowa posture test, cureton-gunby conformateur

D) The Measurements of sports skills :

  • Service, smash, forehand and back hand test in badminton.
  • Russel lounge Volley ball test.
  • Johnson Basketball ability test.
  • Dyer Tennis test.
  • Macdonald Soccer test.
  • Goal shooting test in Hockey.
  • Skills test in Hand ball.
  • Skill test in wrestling.
  • Skill tests in Kabaddi.
  • Skill test in Softball.
  • Skill test in Kho-Kho.



Group - B


Fundamentals of Physical Education & Sports Sciences


I.  Fundamentals of Physical Education:


  • Historical determinants of Physical Education.
  • Scope of Physical Education. Aim and objectives of
  • Physical Education.
  • Philosophical basis of physical education.
  • Biological basis Physical activity.
  • Body Types
  • General principles of growth and Development
  • Sports as cultural heritage of mankind.
  • Olympic Movement and its impact
  • Physical education in India.


II.  Exercise Physiology


  • Concepts of Neuromuscular system
  • Cardio-respiratory system,
  • Skeletal system,
  • Endocrine system
  • Effects of exercise and training on the above
  • Concept of Fatigue and staleness
  • Hyper trophy of muscle in relation to physical activity
  • Aerobics and Anaerobic exercises
  • Hypertrophy of muscle in relation to physical activity
  • Theory of muscular contraction


III Sports medicine and Physiotherapy


1) Massage: History and use.

Stroking - Effleurage, stroking

Pressure - Kneading, Petri sage, friction

Percussion - Hacking, clopping, Beating, pounding.

2) Therapeutic modalities

Hydrotherapy: Treatment and rehabilitation in the following

Electro therapy: Conditions

Heat therapy: Sprain, Strain, low lack problem and

Remedial exercises

3) Specific sports injuries of shoulder, Elbow, wrist and fingers, Abdomen, thigh, knee, ankle and foot.


IV  Kinesiology and Bio mechanics in physical Education


1.    Analysis of sports movement in relation to sports performance

Movements of Running, Jumping Throwing, Games, Like

basket ball, volley-ball, foot-ball, hockey, Hand-Ball, Gymnastics,

Wrestling, Table-Tennis, Lawn-Tennis, Badminton & sports activities

2.    Physiology of muscular activity, Neurotransmission and Movement mechanism

Physiology of respiration

3.    Bioenergetics and recovery process

Joints and their movements-planes and axes

4.    Kinetics, Kinematics-linear and angular, levers

Laws of motion, principles of equilibrium, force, spin and elasticity

5.    Muscular analysis of various sports activities.

6.    Mechanical analysis of various sports activities.

Mechanical analysis of fundamental movements-running, jumping, throwing, pulling and pushing


V. Sports Training


1. Concepts of Load, Adaptation and recovery.

2. Training means and methods.

3. Importance of Strength,

4. Endurance. Speed, Flexibility and their forms.

5. Methods of development of the above qualities.

6. Brief concepts of Talent identification, planning and coordinative abilities.

7. Periodisation and top form.


VI. Yoga


1. Definition of Yoga

2. Asthang yog: Yam, Niyam Asana, Pranayam, Patyahara, Dharana, Dhyan, Samadhi

3. Types of Yoga :Hath Yoga, Gyan Yoga, Karma Yoga, Raj Yoga,

4. Asanas, Its Type,

5. Meaning of Pranayam, Its Type, Precuations, and Technique

6. Yogaic methods of Personal Hygiene (shatkarma)

7. Yoga in Daily life,

8. Effect of Asans on Various Systems of the body

9. Contribution of yoga in the field of Physical education



Group - C


Fundamentals of Physical Education & Behavioral Sports Sciences.


I.  Fundamentals of Physical Education:


  • Historical determinants of Physical Education.
  • Scope of Physical Education. Aim and objectives of
  • Physical Education.
  • Philosophical basis of physical education.
  • Biological basis Physical activity.
  • Body Types
  • General principles of growth and Development
  • Sports as cultural heritage of mankind.
  • Olympic Movement and its impact
  • Physical education in India.


II.  Sport Sociology


  • Nature and Scope of Sports Sociology
  • Concepts of leadership, socialization, social stratification and Theories.
  • Sports competitions, cooperation and team cohesion .
  • Women and Sports.
  • Professionalization and commercialization in sports
  • Sports and politics
  • Group dynamics


III. Sport Psychology

  • Concept and scope of sports psychology
  • Brief concepts of theories of personality
  • Personality and sports performance
  • Emotion, aggression, anxiety, stress and stress management
  • Motivation in sports

a.       Motive, drive, need, sports intelligence, classification of motives

b.      Concept and theories

c.       Types

d.      Sports performance

  • Motor learning and skill learning
  • Impact of skill learning
  • Group dynamics, team cohesion in sports


IV. Sports Training

1. Concepts of Load, Adaptation and recovery.

2. Training means and methods.

3. Importance of Strength,

4. Endurance. Speed, Flexibility and their forms.

5. Methods of development of the above qualities.

6. Brief concepts of Talent identification, planning and coordinative abilities.

7. Periodisation and top form.


V. Yoga


1. Definition of Yoga

2. Asthang yog: Yam, Niyam Asana, Pranayam, Patyahara, Dharana, Dhyan, Samadhi

3. Types of Yoga :Hath Yoga, Gyan Yoga, Karma Yoga, Raj Yoga,

4. Asanas, Its Type,

5. Meaning of Pranayam, Its Type, Precuations, and Technique

6. Yogaic methods of Personal Hygiene (shatkarma)

7. Yoga in Daily life,

8. Effect of Asans on Various Systems of the body

9. Contribution of yoga in the field of Physical education







1) Bookwalter, Karl E. and Harold J. Vaderzwaag. Foundations and Principles of Physical Education. Philadephia: W.B.Saunders company, 1969.

2) Bucher, Charles A. Foundations of Physical Education. St.Louis: The C.V.Mosby Company, 1968.

3) Lockhart, Allene S. and Howard S. Shusher (Eds) Contemporary readings in Physical Education. 3rd Edition; Dubuque, IOWA: WMC Brown Company Publisher, 1974.

4) Melwin H. Williams. Nutrition for ;health Fitness and Sports, New York: McGraw -hill company

5) Scott, K. Powers and Stephen L. Dodd. Total fitness: Exercise, nutrition and wellness: Boston. Allyn and Bacon, 1999. ...3               

6) Strand N. Bradford, Scantling and Martin Johnson. Fitness Education. Arizona: Gorsuch Scaris Brick, Publishers, 1997.

7) Charles A Bucher and Maron L. Krotee. Management of Physical Education and Sports. St.Louis: The C.V. Mosby Co. 1998.

8) Jensen, Clayne R. Administrative Management of Physical Education and Athletic Programs.

Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger, 1983.

9) Alderman, R.B. Psychological Behaviour in sport. Philadelphia: W.B.Saunders Company, 1974.

10) Kamlesh, M.L. Psychology in Physical Education and sports. Delhi: Metropolitan Book Co. Pvt. Ltd., 1988.

11) Clarke, David H. and Clarke H.Harrison. Research Processes in Physical Education. 2nd edition; Englewood cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1984.

12) Kamalesh, M.L. Research Methodology in Physical Education and Sports, New Delhi: Metropolitan Book Co. Pvt. Ltd. 1999.

13) Kerlinger, Fred N. Foundations of Behavioral Research. 2nd edition; Delhi: Surjeet publication,1983.

14) Thomas, Jerry R. and others, Research in Physical Activity., Sydney: Allyn - Bacon Publishers, 1983.

15) Marten, Rainer, Coaching Guide to Sports Psychology, Illinois: Human Kinetic Publishers Inc. 1987.

16) Robert, S. Weinberg and Daniel Gould., Foundations of Sport and Exercise Psychology, Canada: Human Kinetics, 1995.

17) Barrow, Harold M. and Rose Mary McGee. A Practical Approach to Measurement in Physical

Education. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger, 1979.

18) Clarke, H. Harrison and David H. Clarke. Application of Measurement to Physical Education.

Englewood cliffs NJ: prentice: Hall Inc., 1987.

19) Mathews, K. Donald Measurement in Physical Education Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co., 1973.

20) Cratty, Bryant J. Social dimensions of Physical activity. Englewood cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice -Hall Inc. 1967.

21) Dharam vir. Sports and Society: Readings in the sociology of ports. New Delhi: classical publishing company, 1989.

22) Marten, Rainer. Social Psychology and Physical activity. New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1975.

23) Popenoe, David. Sociology. 2nd Edition; Englewood cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc., 1974.

24) Snyder, Eldon E. and Eloner Spreitzer. Social aspects of sports. Englewood cliffs, New Jersey

Prentice Hall Inc., 1978.

25) Mc Ardle, William D, Frank I Katch and Victor L. Katch. Exercise Physiology: Energy Nutrition and Human Performance. 4th Edition; Philadelphia: Lippincott William and Wilkins, 1998.

26) Noble, Bruce J. Physiology of Exercise and Sports. St. Louis: Mosby College Publishing, 1986,

27) Shaver, Larry G. Essentials of Exercise Physiology: New Delli: Surgeet Publication, 1982.

28) Wilmore, Jack H. and David L.Costill. Physiology of Sport and Exercise Champaign. Human Kinetics, 2002.

Applied Yoga : Dr. M.L. Charote. Published by Kaivaladham


29) Yoga and Research 1st Inter-rational conference, Published.

30) Yoga : Its various Aspects-Published by the president. Sri Ramkrishan Math- Mylapore- Madras.

31) Yoga-Written by Earnestwood

32) Raja-Yoga by Swami Vivikanand

33) Bhakti- Yoga by Swami Vivikanand

34) Karma-Yoga by Swami Vivikanand

35) Shri Arvind on Yoga-Edited by Rd. Indarsen Published By Orient Paper Back.

36) Teaching Methods for yogic practices by M.L. Gharote & S.K. Ganguly Published by Kaivalyadham- Lonavala.

37) Anatomy and physiology of Yogic practices by M.M. Gore





Home Science


  • Definition , objectives and importance of research, types of research
  • Research problem, reviews, variables, hypotheses, sampling and sampling methods, research design
  • Primary and secondary data, methods of data collection,
  • Formal style of writing: acknowledgement, tables and figures, footnotes, appendices, bibliography and references, writing for publication, ethics in research.
  • Data analysis: tabular and graphical presentation of data.
  • Measures of central tendency, dispersion, probability, parametric and non parametric test, tests of significance of mean and other statistics , significance of difference between means - t- test, Z- test, analysis of variance, Correlation, Chi - square test.




  • Principles of growth and development, interaction of heredity and environment, historical development of HD, approaches and methods of studying human behavior
  • Theories of human development ( Freud, Jung, Allport, Carl R. Rogers, Abraham Maslow , Pavlov, Skinner , Bandura, Jean Piaget & Brunner)
  • Stages of development in human life span : developmental aspects related to prenatal stage up to old age; problem issues of early childhood years, adolescence, adulthood and old age; welfare programs for helping youth and elderly, behavioral problems at different stages of life
  • Family dynamics : marriage and family - definition, types, functions, objectives and problem issues
  • Need, objectives, philosophy and importance of ECCE; programs related to ECCE, administration and supervision of early childhood education, guiding child behavior
  • Children with special needs, classification and identification, causes, characteristics and impact of exceptionalities on individual and their parents, special education & integration, classification and symptoms related to different abnormal behaviors
  • Basic concepts and services in guidance and counselling , techniques and tools used in guidance, public relation in guidance, approaches to counseling, counseling therapy, counselor as a person and professional, management of crisis situation, special counseling challenges, ethics in counselling .
  • Recent emerging issues in studies of HD , Child rights, women rights, rights as a citizen , human rights, rights of disabled and elderly, gender issues, contemporary burning issues affecting family, ethical issues in human development , cultural variation, demographical statistics of current census.


  • Textile chemistry- polymer chemistry; chemistry and properties of natural and synthetic fibers; chemistry of scouring, bleaching, starching, optical brighteners, blended textiles
  • Textile testing- standard atmospheric conditions ;measurements of relative humidity and moisture regain; testing of fiber, yarn and fabric properties; color fastness tests
  • Dyeing and printing- theories of dyes; dyeing with natural, synthetic and pigment dyes; dyeing machines; styles and methods of printing; preparation of printing paste
  • Textile finishing- different types of mechanical and chemical finishes for finishing natural and synthetic fabrics
  • Historic costumes- Theories of clothing; costumes of Egypt, Greece, Rome, England, France; Indian costumes from ancient period to present time; regional costumes of India; Indian saris of past and present
  • Historic textiles- printed, mordanted and dyed, embroidered, woven textiles of India; history of textile fibers, colors and motifs in India, Peru, Greece, Crete and Mesopotamia
  • Apparel pattern making and advanced apparel designing - methods of pattern making; grading; figure types and sizes; fitting principles, problems and remedies; handling of special fabrics while designing, cutting, stitching and finishing; evaluation of quality of apparel
  • Fabric manufacture- principles and techniques of yarn manufacture, principles and techniques of fabric manufacture
  • Fashion designing- dynamics of fashion, components of fashion, fashion development, fashion research design and analysis, fashion communication
  • Textile merchandising- history, development, present status, problems of textile industries of India; price determination; distribution; retailing and merchandising; marketing trends; sales promotion; labeling and branding
  • Garment production technology- organization of a garment factory, manufacturing technology, quality assurance in garment manufacturing
  • Commercial clothing- establishing an enterprise, management techniques, financial management, human resource management, marketing management, production management, costing, purchasing
  • CAD in textile and garment designing


  • Basic chemical principles and equipments involved in nutritional analysis.
  • Basic chemistry nutritional functions and sources of carbohydrate , protein, fat, vitamins, minerals.
  • Assessment of nutritional status.
  • Major nutritional problems, national nutrition programmes , nutrition monitoring and surveillance, nutrition programme management.
  • Physiological systems, endocrinal secretions.
  • Nutritional epidemiology, nutrition during the lifecycle
  • Nutritional deficiency disorders, nutrition in various diseases and disorders, nutrition in critical care and nutrition in physical fitness
  • Colloidal chemistry as related to food, sensory evaluation , physical and chemical properties of food , effect of cooking and processing on nutrients and food components
  • Food laws and standards
  • Principles underlying food processing operations
  • Food microbiology and its application like HACCP
  • Institutional food administration , types of food services organization and management, quantity food production, Indian and International cuisines




  • Extension, Communication and management.
  • Rural development programs
  • Program planning and adoption.
  • Participatory Techniques
  • Rural social structure and rural psychology
  • Adult and non formal education
  • Organizational behavior
  • Research methods and statistics


  • Approaches of management- Schools of management, Principles of management, Management Philosophy- values, goals and standards, decision making tools and techniques, organizational behavior
  • Kinesiology and Biomechanics- skeletal and muscular system, Ergonomic evaluation of workplace, work characteristics, worker characteristics-physiology of eye, ear, cognition, mental workload,
  • Aesthetics in interior design- elements and principles of art and their applications, creative process model, window treatment, floorings, wall coverings, ceiling designs, illusions created in interior design, exterior design principles, eco friendly design and materials, space planning
  • Environment and human ecology- types of pollution, renewable and non renewable energy sources, fuel technology, eco friendly products








                The test consists of three types of questions: Multiple Choice, Short Answer (250-300 words) and Long Answer (1000 words). The multiple choice questions include questions on research aptitude, reasoning ability and the subject. The short and long questions are related to the subject.


                The syllabus comprises the following areas of study:


1.            Chaucer to Shakespeare

2.            The Age of Milton

3.            Jacobean, Caroline & Restoration  Literature

4.            Neo-classical Poetry, Prose & Fiction

5.            Pre-romantic & Romantic Literature

6.            Victorian Literature

7.            The Pre-Raphaelites

8.            Modern and Post Modern Literature

9.            Literature Criticism from classical Age to the present.

10.          Non-British Literatures in English and English Translation.


The pattern for the Test/Question paper:

Maximum marks: 100

Time allowed: 2 hours


The paper in divided into part A & B. Part A has 50 multiple choice questions and Part B has short and long answer questions for 50 marks.


Part-A               Objective type


                1.            Question on research aptitude:                 10

                2.            Questions on reasoning ability:  10

                3.            Questions on the subject:                            30


                                                                Total                                      50



                6 Short answer questions to be attempted out of 12 questions given (6 x 5)         30

                2 Long answer questions to be attempted out of 5                                           (10x2)   20

                                                                                                                                Total =                                   50

                                                                                  Grand Total = A + B = 50 + 50 = 100 Marks



वनस्थली विद्यापीठ
पी-एच.डी. हिन्दी प्रवेष परीक्षा पाठ्यक्रम
निर्देष: परीक्षा में पाठ्यक्रम से संबंधित 100 बहुविकल्पीय प्रष्न पूछे जाएँगे।
1. तर्क शक्ति परीक्षण
ऽ    शोध अभिज्ञता
ऽ    सामान्य बुद्धि एवं तर्क शक्ति
2. हिन्दी भाषा और उसका विकास
ऽ    अपभ्रंश (अवहट्ट सहित) और पुरानी हिन्दी का सम्बन्ध, काव्यभाषा के रूप में अवधी का उदय और विकास, काव्य भाषा के रूप में ब्रजभाषा का उदय और विकास, साहित्यिक हिन्दी के रूप में खड़ी बोली का उदय और विकास, मानक हिन्दी का भाषा वैज्ञानिक विवरण हिन्दी की बोलियाँ- वर्गीकरण तथा क्षेत्र, नागरी लिपि का विकास और  उसका मानकीकरण।
ऽ    हिन्दी प्रसार के आन्दोलन, प्रमुख व्यक्तियों तथा संस्थाओं का योगदान, राजभाषा के रूप में हिन्दी।
ऽ    हिन्दी भाषा - प्रयोग के विविध रूप-बोली, मानक भाषा, सम्पर्क भाषा, राजभाषा और राष्ट्रभाषा, संचार माध्यम और हिन्दी।

3. हिन्दी साहित्य का इतिहास
ऽ    हिन्दी साहित्य का इतिहास-दर्शन, हिन्दी साहित्य के इतिहास-लेखन की पद्धतियाँ।
ऽ    हिन्दी साहित्य के प्रमुख इतिहास ग्रन्थ, हिन्दी के प्रमुख साहित्यिक केन्द्र, संस्थाएँ एवं पत्र-पत्रिकाएँ, हिन्दी साहित्य के इतिहास का काल विभाजन और नामकरण।
ऽ    आदिकाल - रासो-साहित्य, आदिकालीन हिन्दी का जैन साहित्य, सिद्ध और नाथ साहित्य, आरम्भिक गद्य तथा लौकिक साहित्य।
ऽ    मध्यकाल - भक्ति आन्दोलन के उदय के सामाजिक-सांस्कृतिक कारण, प्रमुख निर्गुण एवं सगुण सम्प्रदाय, आलवार सन्त, प्रमुख सम्प्रदाय और आचार्य।
ऽ    हिन्दी सन्त काव्य - सन्त काव्य का वैचारिक आधार, प्रमुख निर्गुण सन्त कवि कबीर, नानक, दादू, रैदास, सन्त काव्य की प्रमुख विशेषताएँ, भारतीय धर्म साधना में सन्त कवियों का स्थान।
ऽ    हिन्दी सूफी काव्य - सूफी काव्य का वैचारिक आधार, हिन्दी के प्रमुख सूफी कवि और काव्य-मुल्ला दाऊद, कुतुबन, मंझन (मधुमालती), मलिक मुहम्मद जायसी, सूफी प्रेमाख्यानकों का स्वरूप, हिन्दी सूफी काव्य की प्रमुख विशेषताएँ।
ऽ    हिन्दी कृष्ण काव्य - विविध सम्प्रदाय, प्रमुख कृष्ण-भक्त कवि और काव्य-अष्टछाप, मीरा एवं रसखान।
ऽ    हिन्दी राम काव्य - विविध सम्प्रदाय, राम भक्ति शाखा के कवि और काव्य, तुलसीदास की प्रमुख कृतियां।
ऽ    रीति काल - सामाजिक-सांस्कृतिक परिपे्रक्ष्य, रीतिकाव्य के मूल स्रोत, रीतिकाल की प्रमुख प्रवृत्तियाँ, रीतिकाल के प्रमुख कवि: केशवदास, मतिराम, भूषण, बिहारीलाल, देव, घनानन्द और पद्माकर।
ऽ    आधुनिक काल - हिन्दी गद्य का उद्भव और विकास, भारतेन्दु पूर्व हिन्दी गद्य, 1857 की राज्य क्रान्ति और सांस्कृतिक पुनर्जागरण, भारतेन्दु और उनका मण्डल, 19वीं शताब्दी के उत्तरार्द्ध की हिन्दी पत्रकारिता।
ऽ    द्विवेदी युग - महावीर प्रसाद द्विवेदी और उनका युग, हिन्दी नवजागरण और सरस्वती, राष्ट्रीय काव्यधारा के प्रमुख कवि।
ऽ    छायावाद और उसके बाद - छायावादी काव्य की प्रमुख विशेषताएँ, छायावाद के प्रमुख कवि: प्रसाद, निराला, पन्त और महादेवी, उत्तर छायावादी काव्य और उसके प्रमुख कवि, प्रगतिशील काव्य और उसके प्रमुख कवि, प्रयोगवाद और नई कविता, नई कविता के प्रमुख कवि।ं
4. हिन्दी साहित्य की गद्य विधाएँ -
ऽ    हिन्दी उपन्यास - प्रेमचन्द पूर्व उपन्यास, प्रेमचन्द और उनका युग, प्रेमचन्द के परवर्ती प्रमुख उपन्यासकार: जैनेन्द्र, अज्ञेय, हजारीप्रसाद द्विवेदी, यशपाल, अमृतलाल नागर, फणीश्वरनाथ रेणु, भीष्म साहनी, कृष्णा सोबती, निर्मल वर्मा, नरेश मेहता, श्रीलाल शुक्ल, राही मासूम रजा, रांगेय राघव, मन्नू भण्डारी।
ऽ    हिन्दी कहानी - बीसवीं सदी की हिन्दी कहानी और प्रमुख कहानी आन्दोलन।
ऽ    हिन्दी नाटक - हिन्दी नाटक और रंगमंच, विकास के चरण।
ऽ    हिन्दी निबन्ध - हिन्दी निबन्ध के प्रकार और प्रमुख निबन्धकार ।
ऽ    हिन्दी आलोचना - हिन्दी आलोचना का विकास और प्रमुख आलोचक।
ऽ    हिन्दी की अन्य गद्य विधाएँ - रेखाचित्र, संस्मरण, यात्रा-साहित्य, आत्मकथा, जीवनी और रिपोर्ताज।
5. काव्यशास्त्र और आलोचना -
ऽ    भरत मुनि का रस सूत्र और उसके प्रमुख व्याख्याकार।
ऽ    रस के अवयव।
ऽ    साधारणीकरण।
ऽ    शब्द शक्तियाँ और ध्वनि का स्वरूप।
ऽ    रीति, गुण, दोष।
ऽ    मिथक, फन्तासी, कल्पना, प्रतीक और बिम्ब।
ऽ    स्वच्छन्तावाद और यथार्थवाद, संरचनावाद, उत्तर संरचनावाद, आधुनिकता, उत्तर आधुनिकता।
ऽ    समकालीन आलोचना की कतिपय अवधारणाएं - विडम्बना (आयरनी), अजनबीपन (एलियनेशन), विसंगति (एब्सर्ड), अन्तर्विरोध (पैराडाॅक्स), विखण्डन (डीकन्स्ट्रक्शन)
ऽ    समकालीन साहित्यिक पत्रकारिता ।


पूर्व पीएच.डी. संवीक्षा परीक्षा पाठ्यक्रम
निर्देष: प्रष्न पत्र में दो भाग होंगे। भाग - अ में 30 प्रतिषत प्रष्न योग्यता पात्रता से सम्बद्ध होंगे। भाग - ब में 70 प्रतिषत प्रष्न विषय-वस्तु से सम्बद्ध होंगे। प्रष्नों का स्वरूप वस्तुनिष्ठ बहुवैकल्पिक होगा।
भाग - अ
ऽ    शोध अभिक्षमता
ऽ    सामान्य बुद्धि एवं तर्क शक्ति परीक्षण
भाग - ब
संस्कृत साहित्य एवं इतिहास:
वैदिक साहित्य का इतिहास - संहिता, ब्राह्मण आरण्यक, उपनिषद्, वेदांग- षिक्षा, कल्प, व्याकरण, निरूक्त, छन्द एवं ज्योतिष।
वैदिक सूक्त एवं निरुक्त:
ऋग्वेद - अग्नि 1.1, इन्द्र 2.12, पुरुष 10.90, हिरण्यगर्भ 10.12, नासदीय 10.129, वाक् 10.125
संवाद एवं आख्यान - पुरुरवा-उर्वषी, यम-यमी, सरमा-पणी, विष्वामित्र-नदी, आख्यान-षुनःषेप, वाङ्-मनस्
शुक्ल-यजुर्वेद - षिवसंकल्प 1.6, प्रजापति 1.5
अथर्ववेद - पृथ्वीसूक्त 12.1
निरुक्त (अध्ेयाय 1 एवं 2)
(प) प्राचीन एवं आधुनिक साहित्य - महाकाव्यकाल, महाकाव्यों का उद्भव एवं विकास, नाटकों का उद्भव एवं विकास, गीति काव्य का उद्भव एवं विकास, गद्य काव्य का उद्भव एवं विकास।
(पप) छन्द एवं अलंकार -
छन्द - अनुष्टुप्, इन्द्रवज्रा, उपजाति, वंषस्थ, दु्रतविलम्बित, भुजंगप्रयात, वसन्ततिलका, मालिनी, मन्दाक्रान्ता, षिखरिणी, हरिणी, शार्दूलविक्रीडि़त, स्रग्धरा, आर्या, रथोद्गता, प्रहर्षिणी, पुष्पिताग्रा, वियोगिनी, पथ्यवक्त्र, रूचिरा एवं शालिनी।
अलंकार - अनुप्रास, श्लेष, वक्रोक्ति, उपमा, रुपक, उत्प्रेक्षा, समासोक्ति, अपहृति, निदर्षना, अर्थान्तरन्यास, दृष्टान्त, विभावना, विषेषोक्ति, संकर, संसृष्टि।
भारतीय दर्षन का परिचय - चार्वाक्, जैन, बौद्ध, सांख्य, योग, न्याय, वैषेषिक, मीमांसा, वेदान्त
निम्नलिखित ग्रन्थों का सामान्य अध्ययन - सांख्यकारिका, तर्कभाषा, अर्थसंग्रह, वेदान्तसार, सर्वदर्षनसंग्रह-जैनमत-बौद्धमत

पुराण एवं स्मृतियाँ:
अष्टादष पुराण, याज्ञवलक्य स्मृति, मनुस्मृति, पाराषर स्मृति।
महाभाष्य एवं भाषा विज्ञान:
ऽ    महाभाष्य (पष्पषाह्निक)
ऽ    भाषा की परिभाषा, भाषाओं का वर्गीकरण (आकृतिमूलक एवं पारिवारिक), ध्वनि परिर्वतन के कारण, ध्वनि नियम (ग्रिम, ग्रासमान, वर्नर), अर्थपरिवर्तन की दिषाएं तथा कारण, भारोपीय भाषा परिवार का सामान्य एवं संक्षिप्त परिचय।
संज्ञा, सन्धि एवं समास प्रकरण लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी के अनुसार
भाग - अ
समास - लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी के अनुसार।
कारक - सिद्धान्तकौमुदी के अनुसार।
स्त्रीप्रत्यय, कृदन्त एवं तद्धितप्रकरण। (लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी के अनुसार)
भाग - ब
प्रक्रिया भाग - णिजन्त से लकारार्थ प्रकरण तक (लघुसिद्धान्तकौमुदी के अनुसार)
काव्यप्रकाष - (प्रथम से दषम् उल्लास पर्यन्त, सप्तम् उल्लास-रसदोष प्रकरण)
वक्रोक्तिजीवितम् (प्रथम उन्मेष)
काव्यमीमांसा (1 से 5 अध्याय)
रसगंगाधर - प्रथम-आनन (रसनिरूपण)
ध्वन्यालोक (प्रथम उद्योत)
नाट्य एवं नाट्यषास्त्र
नाट्य - अभिज्ञानषाकुन्तलम, उŸाररामचरितम्, वेणीसंहार, विक्रमोर्वषीयम, मालविकाग्निमित्रम्, महावीरचरितम्, मृच्छकटिकम्, मुद्राराक्षसम्, मालतीमाधवम् स्वप्नवासवदत्तम्, रत्नावली (सामान्य परिचय)
नाट्यषास्त्र - भरत नाट्यषास्त्र (प्रथम, द्वितीय तथा षष्ठ अध्याय), दषरूपक, साहित्यदर्पण (षष्ठ परिच्छेद) काव्य की परिभाषा एंव अन्य काव्यपरिभाषाओं का खण्डन, शब्दषक्ति, संकेतग्रह, अभिधा, लक्षणा, व्यंजना,
रस (रसभेद स्थायी भावों सहित),
रूपक के प्रकार, नाटक के लक्षण,
महाकाव्य के लक्षण।










Unit-1     Role of Academic Library in Higher Education in India. Role of UGC and State Government in promoting Academic Library (University, College and other Academic Institutes), Report of Committees and Commission and Higher Education.


Unit-2     Personnel Management- Overview of Personnel Management, Manpower Planning, HRD-Quality Improvement Programmes. UGC Service Condition and Pay Scales and Enhance the status of the Professionals.


Unit-3     Collection Development Policy: Weeding Policy. System analysis And Design: MIS, PERT/CPM, TQM.


Unit-4   Personnel Management and Organizational Behavior: Organizational Structure, Hierarchies, Authority and Delegation, Staffing, Understanding Human behavior etc., Group Behavior, MBO, MBE, Official Communication, Internal and External Co-ordination, Social Responsibility of Management.


Unit-5     INFLIBNET and resource sharing, Library Consortia System- UGC-INFONET etc., Document Delivery System.






Unit-1     Knowledge Organization: Classification- Concept, Cannons, Schemes, Cataloguing- Codes, Cannons etc.


Unit-2     Information Retrieval System: Information Retrieval Process, Search Strategies, Common Command Language.


Unit-3     International Standards- ISBD, MARC, CCF etc.


Unit-4     Index and Indexing: Definition, Indexing System, PRECIS, POPSI, Special Types of Indexing: KWIC, KWOC etc. Citation Indexing, Indexing Language, Thesaurus.


Unit-5     Network and Networking: Concept of Networks, Major Networking System in India and abroad- NICNET, INFLIBNET, DELNET, EURONET, RLIN, OCLC.







Unit-1     Information and its nature, property and scope. Comparative study of Data, Information and Knowledge.


Unit-2  Information Generation and Communication: communication process and media, generation of information modes and forms, information Theory, Information Transfer Cycle.


Unit-3     Information Communication System: Definition, Elements Barriers etc.



Unit-4     Information and Society: Social implication of information, Information as an Economic Resource, Information Policy: national and international, Information Society.


Unit-5     Intellectual Property Rights: Concepts, Copyright, Censorship.  






Unit-1     Sources of Information: Primary, Secondary and Tertiary, Documentary & Non-documentary.


Unit-2     Physical Medium of Information, Print Media, Multimedia and Non-print media: Electronic and Optical Media.


Unit-3     Information Services: Literature Searches and Bibliographic Services, Reprographic Services, Translation Services, Reference and Referral Services etc.


Unit-4     Information Products: Information Newsletter, House Bulletin, In-house Communication, Trade Bulletin, State of Art Report, Technical Digest.


Unit-5     Library Associations in India, UK and USA: ILA, IASLIC, LA, ALA, IFLA etc. Study of Information Centers: NISCAIR, DESIDOC, AGRIS, INIS, MEDLARS etc.








Unit–1    Information and Communication Technology (ICT): Components, Impact of ICT.



Unit -2   Networking and Telecommunications: Definition, Types of Networking (LAN, WAN), Data Transmission and Communication, Protocols, Wireless Communication, Switching mechanism, Network Topology.

Unit-3     Internet and its Services: Origin and development, World Wibe Web, Search Engines.

Unit-4     Library Automation: Library house-keeping operations, Features of Standard Library Aotomation Software- SOUL, LibSys etc., Concept of Digital & Virtual Library.

Unit-5   Computerized Services: Current Awareness Services (CAS), Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI), Online Services, Document Delivery Services, CD-ROM & Electronic database products.








Unit-1     Definition and types of research, Steps in Research Process, Research Method: Historical Survey/Descriptive and Scientific with Ranganathan’s Spiral of Scientific Method.


Unit-2     Data Collation Techniques: Documentary, Observation, Experimental, Questionnaire, Interview, Measurement of Central Tendency, Sampling. Data Analysis and Presentation.


Unit-3     Definition and Types of Research Design: Meaning, Definition and Testing of Hypothesis.


Unit-4     Report Writing: Organization of Reports, Table Presentation and Reporting, Reporting Format, Graphics in Report Presentation.


Unit-5     Bibliometric studies- Concept, Laws etc.




Syllabus for Banasthali Research Entrance Test (BRET)

Part II

Subject Aptitude


  Indian Society and Culture: Indian Ethos and Women Issues

Concept of Indian ethos and Indianity, Understanding Indian culture and psyche, Indian heritage for promoting managerial skills and developing organizational capacities, Women's issues in the Indian context in general and in Indian organizational context in particular.


 Organization Behaviour

                      Evolution of Management thought. Departmentation, Span of Management, System and process of controlling.

                      Personality, Perception, Learning, Motivation, Leadership, Problem solving and decision making, Group dynamics, Conflict management.


Human Resource Management

                      Human Resource Planning, Recruitment & Selection, Employee training and Development, Mobility: Promotion, Demotion, Transfer and Separation Performance appraisal, Process and methods, MBO, Reward, Incentives, Fringe benefits.

                      Grievance and grievance handling procedure, Collective bargaining.

                Financial Management

                      Basic concepts in Financial Statement. Techniques of Financial Analysis, Ratio Analysis., Investment Decision-Capital budgeting principles & techniques

Financing Decision, Leverages, Determinants of capital structure, Working capital Management, Structure & Functioning of Capital & Money Market. Financial Services



Marketing Management

                      Marketing Management Philosophies, Consumer Markets and buyer behaviour, Industrial Markets and buyer behavior, Market Segmentation targeting strategies, Marketing Mix strategies, Marketing Audit, Branding, Rural Marketing.


System, Analysis, Design And MIS


Using IT for competitive advantage, Business process & IS. Management Information System: Role of Information in Organizations and Management; Information management and decision-making, Business Process Re-engineering (BPR) and Reverse Engineering, Introduction to ERP,  Decision Support System, Knowledge Management


 Business Environment

Economic , Social, Political, Cultural and Legal environment of business

Operations and Strategy

                      Design of products and services; Facility location, Manufacturing systems and Facility layout. Event Management, Production planning and control Inventory Management and MRP. Quality Management: TQC & TQM,

                      Strategic Intent, Mission & purpose, Business definition, Strategic Management process, External Scanning, Internal Scanning.  Strategic alternatives-Grand Strategies, Expansion, Stability, Retrenchment, Combination Strategy. Generic Strategies, Strategy formulation, Strategy Implementation, Strategic Evaluation and Control, Corporate governance and social responsibility



                      Concept, Types of Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurial   traits and competencies Entrepreneurial Motivational training, MSMEs, Project formulation and implementation, Special Scheme for Women Entrepreneurs


Computer Science

Ph. D. Entrance Exam (Computer Science) Syllabus

Aptitude Test

UNIT-I (6 questions to be set) - Logical Reasoning

UNIT-II (6 questions to be set) - Data Interpretation

UNIT-III (6 questions to be set) - Mathematical Reasoning

UNIT-IV (6 questions to be set) - Reading Comprehension

UNIT-V (6 questions to be set) - Research Methodology

Computer Science

UNIT-I (10 questions to be set, 1 question from each of 1.1 thru 1.10)

Discrete Mathematics (4 questions to be set, 1 question from each of subunits 1.1 to 1.4)

Numerical Computing (3 questions to be set, 1 question from each of subunits 1.5 to 1.7)

Modeling and Simulation (3 questions to be set, 1 question from each of subunits 1.8 to 1.10)

UNIT-II (10 questions to be set, 1 question from each of 2.1 thru 2.10)

Data Structures (4 questions to be set, 1 question from each of subunits 2.1 to 2.4)

Design and Analysis of Algorithms (3 questions to be set, 1 question from each of subunits 2.5 to 2.7)

Object Oriented Paradigm (3 questions to be set, 1 question from each of subunits 2.8 to 2.10)

UNIT-III (10 questions to be set, 1 question from each of 3.1 thru 3.10)

Database Management Systems (4 questions to be set, 1 question from each of subunits 3.1 to 3.4)

Theory of Computation (4 questions to be set, 1 question from each of subunits 3.5 to 3.8)

Compiler Design (2 questions to be set, 1 question from each of subunits 3.9 to 3.10)

UNIT-IV (10 questions to be set, 1 question from each of 4.1 thru 4.10)

Operating Systems (4 questions to be set, 1 question from each of subunits 4.1 to 4.4)

Systems Programming (2 questions to be set, 1 question from each of subunits 4.5 to 4.6)

Software Engineering (4 questions to be set, 1 question from each of subunits 4.7 to 4.10)

UNIT-V (10 questions to be set, 1 question from each of 5.1 thru 5.10)

Computer System Architecture (4 questions to be set, 1 question from each of subunits 5.1 to 5.4)

Data Communication and Networks (4 questions to be set, 1 question from each of subunits 5.5 to 5.8)

Distributed Computing (2 questions to be set, 1 question from each of subunits 5.9 to 5.10)

UNIT-VI (10 questions to be set, 1 question from each of 6.1 thru 6.10)

Computer Graphics (4 questions to be set, 1 question from each of subunits 6.1 to 6.4)

Artificial Intelligence (4 questions to be set, 1 question from each of subunits 6.5 to 6.8)

Soft Computing (2 questions to be set, 1 question from each of subunits 6.9 to 6.10)

UNIT-VII (10 questions to be set, 1 question from each of 7.1 thru 7.10)

Data Warehouse & Data Mining (2 questions to be set, 1 question from each of subunits 7.1 to 7.2)

Parallel Computing (2 questions to be set, 1 question from each of subunits 7.3 to 7.4)

Information Security (3 questions to be set, 1 question from each of subunits 7.5 to 7.7)

Electronic Commerce (3 questions to be set, 1 question from each of subunits 7.8 to 7.10)











Ph. D. Entrance Exam (Computer Science) Syllabus

Aptitude Test

UNIT-I (6 questions to be set)

Logical Reasoning: Understanding the structure of arguments; Evaluating and distinguishing deductive and inductive research; logical and Venn diagram; inferences; Verbal analogies.

UNIT-II (6 questions to be set)

Data Interpretation: interpretation of data; mapping and analysis of data, tools for data analysis; quantitative and qualitative research.

UNIT-III (6 questions to be set)

Mathematical Reasoning: number series, letter series, codes; relationships, classification.

UNIT-IV (6 questions to be set)

Reading Comprehension: A passage to be set with questions to be answered.

UNIT-V (6 questions to be set)

Research Methodology: meaning, characteristics, and ethical issues in research; types of research; research methods; paper, article, workshop, conference and symposium; thesis writing: its characteristics and format.



BRET (Computer Science) Syllabus

UNIT-I (10 questions to be set, 1 question from each of 1.1 thru 1.10)

Discrete Mathematics (4 questions to be set, 1 question from each of subunits 1.1 to 1.4)


Set theory, Functions, Relations, Permutations and Combinations, Pigeon-hole principle.


Generating functions, Recurrence relations, Linear recurrence relations with constant coefficients, Homogenous solutions, Particular solutions, Total solutions, Solution by the method of generating functions.


Graph Theory: Basic terminology, Multigraphs and weighted graphs, Paths and circuits, Shortest paths in weighted graphs, Eulerian paths and circuits, Hamiltonian paths and circuits, Planar graphs, Trees and  rooted trees, Minimal spanning trees, Cut sets, Directed graphs.




Mathematical Logic: Propositions, Connectives, Conditionals and biconditionals, Well formed formulas, Tautologies, Equivalence of formulas, Duality law, Normal forms, Inference theory for propositional calculus; Predicate calculus: predicates, free and bound variables, Inference theory of predicate calculus, Lattices and boolean algebra.

Numerical Computing (3 questions to be set, 1 question from each of subunits 1.5 to 1.7)


Solution to Transcendental and Polynomial Equations: Iterative methods, Bisection method, Secant method, Newton-Raphson method, Fixed point iteration, methods for finding complex roots. Matrices and Linear System of Equations: LU decomposition method for solving systems of equations, Symmetric positive definite matrices and least square approximation, Iterative algorithms for linear equations.


Interpolation: Polynomial interpolation, Newton-Gregory, Stirling's, Bessel's and Lagrange's interpolation formula, Newton's divided differences interpolation formulae. Curve fitting: Fitting linear and non-linear curves, Least square approximation.


Numerical Differentiation and Integration: Numerical differentiation and errors in numerical differentiation, Newton-Cotes formulae, Trapezoidal rule, Simpson's rule, Gaussian integration.

Modeling and Simulation (3 questions to be set, 1 question from each of subunits 1.8 to 1.10)


Probability: Basic concepts & definitions (Classical & Axiomatic definition), Random variable, Probability density function, Probability mass function, Distribution function and their properties. Systems and environment: Concept of model and model building, Model classification and representation, Use of simulation as a tool, Steps in simulation study.


Various discrete and continuous probability distributions: Uniform (continuous and discrete), Binomial, Negative Binomial, Poisson, Exponential, Erlang, Gamma, Normal, χ 2, t-distribution and F-distribution, Bivariate normal distribution (Marginal and Conditional distributions), Central Limit Theorem, Simple random sampling with and without replacement.


Random Numbers: Properties of random numbers, Generation of pseudo random numbers, Techniques of random number generation: Multiplicative congruential, Linear congruential generators, Tests for randomness, Random variate generation using inverse transformation, direct transformation, Convolution method, Acceptance-rejection technique. Queuing & Inventory Models: Characteristics of queuing systems, Notation, Transient and steady-state behavior, Simulation of queueing and inventory systems.

UNIT-II (10 questions to be set, 1 question from each of 2.1 thru 2.10)

Data Structures (4 questions to be set, 1 question from each of subunits 2.1 to 2.4)


Arrays, Stacks and Queues: Representation of Array (Single & Multi Dimensional Arrays), Representation of Stacks & Queues using Arrays and their Operations, Circular Queues, Conversion from Infix to Postfix and Evaluation of Postfix expressions using Stack.


Linked List: Singly linked list, Linked stacks and queue, Polynomial representation and manipulation using linked list, Circular Linked list and doubly linked list.


Basic Search and Traversal Techniques: Selection sort, Bubble sort, Insertion sort, Quick sort, Heap sort, Merge sort, Shell sort; Depth - First Search, Breadth - First Search.


Trees: BST traversal methods (Preorder, Postorder and Inorder), B- trees: Insertion and Deletion operations.

Design and Analysis of Algorithms (3 questions to be set, 1 question from each of subunits 2.5 to 2.7)


Algorithms, Analysis of algorithms, Asymptotic notation, Complexity of algorithms. Divide and Conquer: Binary Search, Finding Maximum and Minimum; String Processing: KMP, Boyre-Moore, Robin Karp algorithms. Greedy Method: Knapsack Problem, Job Sequencing with Deadlines, Optimal Merge Patterns.


Backtracking: 8 - Queens Problem, Sum of Subsets, Hamiltonian Cycles, Knapsack Problem. Dynamic Programming: Multistage Graphs, Optimal Binary Search Trees, 0/1 Knapsack, Reliability Design, Traveling Salesperson Problem.


Non-Deterministic Algorithm: Non-Deterministic Programming Constructs, Simple Non-Deterministic Programs; NP-Hard and NP-Complete Problems.

Object Oriented Paradigm (3 questions to be set, 1 question from each of subunits 2.8 to 2.10)


Object Oriented Concepts: Abstraction, Encapsulation, Objects, Classes, Methods, Constructors, Inheritance, Polymorphism, Static and dynamic binding, Overloading.


C++: Identifiers, Variables, Constants, Primitive data types, Expressions, Structured data types, Arrays, Compilers & interpreters, Assignment statement, if then else statements, Switch statement, Looping statements: while, do while, for, break, continue, Input/output statements, Functions/procedures.


Object oriented analysis, design, Unit testing & debugging, System testing & integration, Maintenance.

UNIT-III (10 questions to be set, 1 question from each of 3.1 thru 3.10)

Database Management Systems (4 questions to be set, 1 question from each of subunits 3.1 to 3.4)


Basic Concepts of Database systems: Data modeling for a database, Abstraction and data integration, Three level architecture of a DBMS, Overview of relational, network, hierarchical data models.


Database Design: Entity Relationship model, Extended Entity Relationship model. Relational Model & Relational Data Manipulations: Relation, Conversion of ER diagrams to relations, Integrity constraints, Relational algebra, Relational domain & tuple calculus.


Structured Query Language: DDL, DML, Views, Embedded SQL.



Relational Database Design Concepts: Functional dependencies, Determining keys, Normalization-1st, 2nd, 3rd, BCNF, 4th and 5th, Lossless join and dependency preserving decomposition.

Theory of Computation (4 questions to be set, 1 question from each of subunits 3.5 to 3.8)


Introduction to automata theory: Alphabets, Strings, and languages.


Finite Automata and Regular Languages: Deterministic and non-deterministic finite automata, Regular expressions, Regular languages and their relationship with finite automata, Pumping lemma and closure properties of regular languages; Kleen's Theorem; Finite Automata with output; Minimization of DFA.


Context Free Grammars and Pushdown Automata: Context free grammars (CFG), Parse trees, Ambiguities in grammars and languages, Normal forms: CNF & GNF; Pushdown automaton (PDA) and the language accepted by PDA, Deterministic PDA, Non- deterministic PDA, Properties of context free languages; Normal forms, Pumping lemma, Closure properties, Decision properties.


Turing Machines: Turing machine as a model of computation, Linear bounded automata; Variants of Turing machine and their equivalence. Undecidability: Recursively enumerable and recursive languages, Undecidable problems about Turing machines: Halting problem, Post Correspondence Problem, and undecidability problems about CFGs.

Compiler Design (2 questions to be set, 1 question from each of subunits 3.9 to 3.10)


Lexical and Syntactic Analysis: Design of a lexical analyzer generator, Syntactic analysis - design of top down and bottom up parsers.


Syntax directed translation: Top down and bottom up approaches, Data types, Mixed mode expression; Subscripted variables, Sequencing statement, Subroutines and functions: parameters called by address, by name and by value, subroutines with side effects; Code generation, Machine dependent and machine independent optimization techniques.

UNIT-IV (10 questions to be set, 1 question from each of 4.1 thru 4.10)

Operating Systems (4 questions to be set, 1 question from each of subunits 4.1 to 4.4)


Introduction to operating systems: Operating System as a resource manager, Operating system classification, System calls, Traps, Architectures for operating systems. Device Management: Goals of I/O software, Design of device drivers.


Processor Management: Process overview, Process states and state transition, Multiprogramming, Multi-tasking, Levels of schedulers and scheduling algorithms; Process Synchronization - Critical section and mutual exclusion problem, Classical synchronization problems, Deadlock prevention; Multithreading.


Memory Management: Classical memory management techniques, Paging, Segmentation, Virtual memory.


File Management: Overview of file management system, Disk space management, Directory structures; Protection domains, Access control lists, Protection models.



Systems Programming (2 questions to be set, 1 question from each of subunits 4.5 to 4.6)


8086 Architecture & Assembly Language Programming: Data representation, Instruction formats, Addressing techniques, Segments - Data Segment, Code Segment, Stack Segment, Memory Segment, Procedures, Input/ Output, Program development in 8086.


Assembler: Macro processor, Macros, Calls, Parameters, Expansion, Design of two-pass assembler. Loaders and Linkers: Loading schemes, Design of absolute and direct linking loaders.

Software Engineering (4 questions to be set, 1 question from each of subunits 4.7 to 4.10)


Software Life Cycle Models: SDLC Models, Selection of a Life Cycle Model. Software Requirements Analysis and Specifications: Requirements Engineering, Requirements Elicitation, Requirements Analysis, Requirements Documentation.


Software Project Planning: Size Estimation, Cost Estimation, Models, Constructive Cost Model, Software Risk Management. Software Design: Design Definition, Modularity, Strategy of Design, Function Oriented Design, IEEE Recommended Practice for Software Design Description, Object Oriented Design.


Software Metrics: Software Metrics, Token Count, Data Structure Metrics, Information Flow Metrics, Metrics Analysis. Software Reliability: Basic Concepts, Software Quality, Software Reliability Models, Capability Maturity Model.


Software Testing: Testing Process, Functional Testing, Structural Testing, Levels of Testing, Debugging, Testing Tools. Software Maintenance: Maintenance Process, Maintenance Models, Estimation of Maintenance Costs, Regression Testing, Reverse Engineering, Software Re-engineering, Configuration Management.

UNIT-V (10 questions to be set, 1 question from each of 5.1 thru 5.10)

Computer System Architecture (4 questions to be set, 1 question from each of subunits 5.1 to 5.4)


Basic Building Blocks: Boolean logic and Boolean algebra, Tri-state logic; Flip-flops, Counters, Shift registers, Adders, Substractor, Encoders, Decoders, Multiplexors, Demultiplexors.


Register Transfer and Micro Operations: Bus and memory transfers, Arithmetic, Logic shift micro operations; Basic computer organization: common bus system, instruction formats, instruction cycle, CPU organization, register organization, stack organization, micro programmed control unit RISC architecture; Microprocessor architecture.


Memory Unit: Primary memory, Secondary memory, Associative memory, Sequential access, Direct access storage devices, Virtual & Cache memory.


Input-Output Organisation: Input/Output devices; Data transfer schemes - programmed I/O, interrupt I/O and DMA transfer; Data transfer schemes for microprocessors.


Data Communication and Networks (4 questions to be set, 1 question from each of subunits 5.5 to 5.8)


Data Communication Systems: Concept of Data Communication Systems.


Network Reference Models: Local Area Networks, Wide Area  network, Layered architectures, Protocol hierarchies, Interface and services: ISO-OSI reference model, TCP/IP reference model, Wireless network, Internetworking. Error Detection & Correction: Framing, Error-control, Flow-control; Sliding window protocol; HDLC; Data link layer of internet.


Switching Techniques: Circuit switching, Message switching, Packet switching, Routing and congestion control. Application Layer: File transfer protocol, Electronic mail, World Wide Web, SNMP, STTP.


Routing Concepts: Distance Vector Routing-Link State Routing-Inter Domain Routing, Classless Inter-domain Routing, Interior Gateway Routing Protocols, Exterior Gateway Routing Protocol, Border Gateway Protocol. ATM Networks: Routing in ATM Networks, ATM Address Structure, ATM Routing.

Distributed Computing (2 questions to be set, 1 question from each of subunits 5.9 to 5.10)


Distributed Operating System: Distributed computing system models, Issues in design of distributed operating system, message passing, Remote procedure calls, synchronization, process management, resource management, distributed file systems.


Distributed algorithms: Synchronous and partial synchronous models, Algorithms in general synchronous leader election, Breadth first search, shortest path randomized algorithms; Asynchronous shared memory model, mutual exclusion, resource allocation, consensus, Asynchronous network model, basic asynchronous network algorithms.

UNIT-VI (10 questions to be set, 1 question from each of 6.1 thru 6.10)

Computer Graphics (4 questions to be set, 1 question from each of subunits 6.1 to 6.4)


Development of computer Graphics: Raster Scan and Random Scan graphics storages, Displays processors and character generators, Colour display techniques, Interactive input/output devices.


Points, lines and curves: Scan conversion, Line-drawing algorithms, Circle and ellipse generation, Conic-section generation, Polygon filling anti aliasing.


Two-dimensional viewing: Co-ordinate systems, Windows and Viewport, Linear transformations, Line and polygon clipping algorithms.


Three-dimensional concepts: 3-D representations, Transformations, Perspective and parallel projections, Spline curves and surfaces, Quadtree and Octree data structures; Hidden Surface and hidden - line removal algorithms, Shading modelsand colour models for solid objects.



Artificial Intelligence (4 questions to be set, 1 question from each of subunits 6.5 to 6.8)


A.I. Techniques and its characteristics, Problems and problem spaces, Problems as state space search, Production systems, Control Strategies, Heuristic search, Problem characteristics, Production system characteristics.


Problem Solving Methods: Forward versus backward reasoning, Problem trees versus Problem graphs, Knowledge representation and the frame problem, Generate-and-test, Hill climbing, Breadth-First-Search, Problem Reduction, Constraint satisfaction, Means-End analysis.


Game Playing: Minimax search, Alpha-beta pruning, Secondary search.


Knowledge Representation using Predicate Logic: Representing simple facts using logic, Resolution, Conversion to clause form, Resolution in clause form, Unification algorithm.

Soft Computing (2 questions to be set, 1 question from each of subunits 6.9 to 6.10)


Fundamentals of ANN: The Biological Neural Network, Artificial Neural Networks, Building Blocks of ANN. ANN Terminologies: Architecture, Setting of Weights, Activation Functions, Mcculloch- Pitts Neuron Model, Hebbian Learning Rule, Perception Learning Rule, Delta Learning Rule.


Fuzzy System: Fuzzy Sets, Properties and Operations - Fuzzy Relations, Cardinality, Operations and Properties of Fuzzy Relations, Fuzzy Composition; Fuzzy Variables, Types of Membership Functions. Genetic Algorithm (GA): Biological Terminology, Elements of GA: Encoding, Types of Selection, Types of Crossover, Mutation, Reinsertion, Theoretical Foundation: Schema, Fundamental Theorems of GA.

UNIT-VII (10 questions to be set, 1 question from each of 7.1 thru 7.10)

Data Warehouse & Data Mining (2 questions to be set, 1 question from each of subunits 7.1 to 7.2)


Data Warehouse: Data warehouses and data marts, metadata in the data warehouse; Defining the business requirement: Dimensional analysis, information packages, requirement-gathering methods; Architecture and Infrastructure: Data warehousing architecture, Architectural framework, Technical architecture, Collection of tools, Infrastructure supporting architecture.


Data Mining: The process of knowledge discovery in databases, Predictive and descriptive data mining techniques, Supervised and unsupervised learning techniques. Techniques of Data Mining: Link analysis, Predictive modeling, Database segmentation, Score functions for data mining algorithms, Bayesian techniques in data mining; Issues in Data Mining: Scalability and data management issues in data mining algorithms, Parallel and distributed data mining, Privacy, Social, Ethical issues in KDD and data mining, Pitfalls of KDD and data mining.



Parallel Computing (2 questions to be set, 1 question from each of subunits 7.3 to 7.4)


Introduction to Parallel Computing, Advantages of Parallel Computing; Array Processors, Shared memory multi-processors, Message passing multi-processors, MMC systems; Elementary sorting algorithms; PRAM Algorithms.


Matrix algorithms: Matrix-Vector multiplication, Matrix multiplication, Matrix inversion; Graph algorithms: Mesh algorithm for transitive closure, Searching a Graph, Connected Components, All-paired Shortest Path, Single-source Shortest Path, Minimum- cost Spanning Tree.

Information Security (3 questions to be set, 1 question from each of subunits 7.5 to 7.7)


Overview of Security: Protection versus security; Aspects of security-data integrity, data availability, privacy; Security problems, User authentication. Security Threats: Program threats, Worms, Viruses, Trojan horse, Trap door, Stack and buffer overflow; System threats- intruders; Communication threats- tapping and piracy, Intrusion detection.


Cryptography: Substitution, Transposition ciphers, Symmetric-key algorithms-Data Encryption Standard, Advanced encryption standards, Public key encryption - RSA; Diffie-Hellman key exchange.


Digital signatures: Symmetric key signatures, Public key signatures, Message digests, Public key infrastructures.

Electronic Commerce (3 questions to be set, 1 question from each of subunits 7.8 to 7.10)


Building Blocks of Electronic Commerce: Introduction, internet and networking technologies, Internet and network protocols, web server scalability, software technologies for building E-commerce applications, distributed objects, object request brokers, component technology, web services, web application architectures, BizTalk framework Compliant Server.


Security of E-commerce transactions: Review of cryptographic tools, authentication, signatures, observers, anonymity, privacy, traceability, key certification, management and escrow.


Payment protocols and standards: Smart card, e-cash, e-wallet technologies, electronic money and electronic payment systems, business models for electronic commerce, electronic marketplaces, auctions and other market mechanisms, design of auctions, optimization algorithms for marketplaces, multi-agent systems.





Structural Biology: Nucleic acid and protein structure, RNA and Protein structure determination, Ramachandran plot, Protein structure comparison, Classification of three-dimensional structure of protein, Prediction of motifs, folds and domains, Structure visualization, Predicting protein function from structure, Molecular interactions, Forces that stabilize bimolecular structure and interaction.

Cell and Molecular Biology: Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cells, their genome architecture and gene expression, Cell organelles, Cellular membrane, Cell-Cell interactions & Signal transduction, Protein targeting, Genetics.

Genomics and Proteomics: Genome sequencing, Genome comparison & analysis, Global expression analysis, Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE), Technique of Microarray, Functional and comparative genomics, Molecular markers, Expressed sequence tags, Single nucleotide polymorphisms, Transgenic animals & plants.

Proteomics, Protein profiling, Peptide sequencing, Protein Microarrays,

 Computer Aided Drug Designing: Pharmacogenomics and Pharmacogenetics, Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics, Molecular descriptors, QSAR, Structure and ligand based drug design, Docking methodologies, Pharmacophore modeling, Chemoinformatics.

Computational Biology: Biological databases, Sequence alignment, Scoring matrices, Multiple sequence alignment, Gene finding methods, Markov chain, Hidden markov models, Molecular modeling, Primer selection, Phylogeny, Systems biology, Metabolomics, Ecosystems, Gene regulatory network, Natural evolution and evolutionary algorithm, Evolutionary models, Artificial immune systems, Computational embryology, Artificial life, Ant colony optimization, Swarm intelligence, Artificial neural network.

 Computer Science: Computer basics, Number System, Operating systems, Compilers, Interpreters, Programming languages, Perl, C, Java, Web designing, HTML, XML. Concept of data structures, linear link list, Importance of stack and queue, Binary tree, Introduction to graphs. Data base system concepts and architecture, Data modeling using entity relationship model, Relational data model and language, Oracle, Data base design, Distributed database systems.

Basic Mathematics and Statistics: Arithmetic and geometrical progressions, Sequences and series, Permutation and combination, Logarithms, Matrices, Eigen values and Eigen vectors, Co-ordinate Geometry, Differential calculus, Concept of variable, Correlation and Regression, Theory of probability, Bayes theorem, Testing of hypothesis, Design of experiment, Cluster analysis, Principle component analysis.


The paper will consist of multiple choice based questions. The distribution of questions is as follows: 30% Aptitude, 20% Biology, 20% Computer Science, 10% each of Bioinformatics, Mathematics and Statistics.







Signals, Systems & Networks:

Definitions and properties of Laplace transform continuous-time and discrete-time Fourier series, continuous-time and discrete-time Fourier Transform, DFT and FFT, z transform. Sampling theorem. Linear Time-Invariant (LTI) Systems: definitions and properties; causality, stability, impulse response, convolution, poles and zeros, parallel and cascade structure, frequency response, group delay, phase delay. Signal transmission through LTI systems. Solution methods: nodal and mesh analysis. Network theorems: superposition, Thevenin and Norton's maximum power transfer, Wye-Delta transformation. Steady state sinusoidal analysis using phasors. Time domain analysis of simple RLC circuits, Solution of network equations using Laplace transform: frequency domain analysis of RLC circuits. Two-port network parameters: driving point and transfer functions. State equations for networks.


Electronic Devices & Circuits:

Energy bands formation, Carrier transport: diffusion current, drift current, mobility, and resistivity, generation and recombination.  P-N junction diode, Zener diode, tunnel diode, BJT, JFET, MOS capacitor, MOSFET, LED, p-i-n and avalanche photo diode, LASER. Small Signal Equivalent circuits of diodes, BJTs, MOSFETs and CMOS. Simple diode circuits, clipping, clamping, rectifier. Biasing and bias stability of transistor and FET amplifiers. Amplifiers: single-and multi-stage, differential and operational, feedback, and power.  Frequency response of amplifiers. Simple op-amp circuits. Filters. Sinusoidal oscillators; criterion for oscillation; single-transistor and op-amp configurations. Function generators and wave-shaping circuits, 555 Timers. Power supplies.

Digital circuits:

Boolean algebra, minimization of Boolean functions; logic gates; digital IC families (DTL, TTL, ECL, MOS, CMOS). Combinatorial circuits: arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers, decoders, PROMs and PLAs. Sequential circuits: latches and flip-flops, counters and shift-registers. Sample and hold circuits, ADCs, DACs. Semiconductor memories. Microprocessor (8085): architecture, programming, memory and I/O interfacing.


Control Systems:

Basic control system components; block diagrammatic description, reduction of block diagrams. Open loop and closed loop (feedback) systems and stability analysis of these systems. Signal flow graphs and their use in determining transfer functions of systems; transient and steady state analysis of LTI control systems and frequency response. Tools and techniques for LTI control system analysis: root loci, Routh-Hurwitz criterion, Bode and Nyquist plots. Control system compensators: elements of lead and lag compensation, elements of Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) control. State variable representation and solution of state equation of LTI control systems.

Communication Engineering:

Random signals and noise: probability, random variables, probability density function, autocorrelation, power spectral density. Analog communication systems: amplitude and angle modulation and demodulation systems, spectral analysis of these operations, super heterodyne receivers; elements of hardware, realizations of analog communication systems; signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) calculations for amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM) for low noise conditions. Information theory and channel capacity theorem. Digital communication systems: pulse code modulation (PCM), differential pulse code modulation (DPCM), digital modulation schemes: amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK), matched filter receivers, bandwidth consideration and probability of error calculations for these schemes. Mobile Communication: concept, spread spectrum multiple access, Basics of TDMA, FDMA and CDMA and GSM. Optical fiber communication: transmission characteristics of optical fibers, Intensity modulation, direct detection. 


Elements of vector calculus: divergence and curl; Gauss' and Stokes' theorems, Maxwell's equations: differential and integral forms. Wave equation, Poynting vector. Plane waves: propagation through various media; reflection and refraction; phase and group velocity; skin depth. Transmission lines: characteristic impedance; impedance transformation; Smith chart; impedance matching; S parameters, pulse excitation. Waveguides: modes in rectangular waveguides; boundary conditions; cut-off frequencies; dispersion relations. Basics of propagation in dielectric waveguide and optical fibers. Basics of Antennas: Dipole antennas; radiation pattern; antenna gain.

Instrumentation and Measurements: Principle of measurements and error analysis. Instruments: DC & AC voltage and current meters, power and energy meters, meter for measuring speed, potentiometer and bridges; estimation of instrument ranges. Amplifiers in instrumentation, Digital display in instruments. Principle of oscilloscope and recorders, Passive (resistive, inductive, capacitive) and active (thermoelectric, piezoelectric, photoelectric etc.) transducers.




Mathematics/ Operations Research



Instruction for examination section: Question bank contains two parts

Part I: Aptitude Test

Part II: Subject specific Test

24 questions should be selected from Part I. Part II is divided into eight section and 7 questions should be given from each section, so in all 56 questions from Part II.


Part 1

Aptitude: Reasoning and General Science.

Part 2


Section- 1

Abstract Algebra:

Group, Subgroup, Permutation Group, Cyclic Group, Cosets, Lagrange's Theorem, Homomorphism and Isomorphism of Group, Cayley's Theorem, Normal Subgroup and Quotient Group, Fundamental Theorem of Homomorphism of Group (First, Second and Third theorem of Isomorphism), p-Groups, Sylow's Theorems, Commutator, Series of Subgroups, Solvable Groups. Rings, Integral Domain, Division Ring, Field, Simple Properties of Ring, Subring, Subfield, Ring Homomorphism and Ring Isomorphism, Ideal, Principal Ideal, Principal Ideal Ring, Quotient Ring, Prime Ideal, Maximal Ideal, Euclidean Ring and its Properties,  Divisibility, Euclidean and Principal Ideal Domains, Unique Factorization Domains, Polynomial Ring. Extension Fields, Splitting Fields, Normal and Separable Extensions, Perfect Fields, Fundamental Theorem of Galois Theory.

Section- 2

Complex Analysis:

Complex Numbers, Analytic (Holomorphic) Functions, Cauchy-Riemann Equations, Polar form of Cauchy-Riemann Equations, Harmonic functions, Conformal Transformation, Bilinear Transformation, Power Series, Radius of Convergence, Able's Convergence Lemma, Cauchy-Hadamard Formula. Integral along a Path, Cauchy's Theorem, Cauchy's Integral Formula and its Generalized Form, Poisson Integral Formula Schwarz Lemma, Taylor's and Laurent's Expansions, Cauchy Inequality, Liouville's Theorem, Morera's Theorem, Maximum and Minimum modulus principle. Zeroes of an Analytic Function, Winding Number, Different Type of Singularities, Entire and Meromorphic Functions, Gauss Theorem, Casorati and Weierstrass Theorem, Residue at a Singularity, Cauchy's Residue Theorem, Argument Principle, Rouche's Theorem, Fundamental Theorem of Algebra, Hurwitz Theorem, Residue and Contour Integration.


Section- 3

Mathematical Analysis:

Remainder after n- terms in Taylor's Expansion, Finite, Countable and Uncountable Sets, Real Number System as a Complete Ordered Field, Archimedean Property, Supremum, Infimum Sequences and Series, Convergence, Limsup, Liminf, Bolzano Weierstrass Theorem, Heine Borel Theorem, Continuity, Uniform Continuity, Differentiability, Mean Value Theorem, Sequences and Series of Functions, Uniform Convergence, Riemann Sums and Riemann Integral, Improper Integrals, Monotonic Functions, Types of Discontinuity, Functions of Bounded Variation, Lebesgue Measure, Lebesgue Integral, Functions of Several Variables, Directional Derivative, Partial Derivative, and Derivative as a Linear Transformation, Inverse and Implicit Function Theorems, Metric Spaces, Compactness, Connectedness. Normed Linear Spaces, Spaces of Continuous Functions as Examples.


Infinite Sets and Axiom of Choice, Well Ordered Sets, The Maximum Principle; Topological Spaces, Bases for a Topology, The Order Topology, The Product Topology, The Subspace Topology, Closed Sets and Limit Points, Continuous Functions: Continuity of a Function, Homeomorphisms, Construction of Continuous Functions, Metric Topology, The Quotient Topology (Introduction only), Connectedness and Compactness: Connected Spaces, Connected Subspaces of the Real line, Components and Path Components, Local Connectedness, Compact Spaces, Compact Sets in the Real line, Limit Point Compactness, Local Compactness, T1, T2, T3, T4, T5 Topologies.


Normed Spaces, Banach Spaces, Subspaces, Linear Operators, Linear Functional, Bounded and Continuous Linear Operators, Normed Spaces of Operators, Dual Spaces.

Hahn-Banach Theorem (Extension of Linear Functional) for Normed Spaces, Application to Bounded Linear Functional on C[a,b], Adjoint Operators, Reflexive Spaces, Uniform Boundedness Theorem, Convergence of Sequence of Operators and Functional, Open Mapping Theorem, Closed Linear Operators, Closed Graph Theorem.  Inner Product Spaces, Hilbert Spaces, Further Properties of Inner Product Spaces, Orthogonal Complements and Direct Sums, Orthonormal Sets and Sequences, Total Orthonormal Sets and Sequences, Representation of Functional on Hilbert Spaces, Hilbert Adjoint Operators, Self Adjoint, Unitary and Normal Operators.



Section- 4

Linear Algebra

Basic Concepts of Linear Algebra: Vector Spaces, Subspaces, Quotient Spaces, Linear Dependence, Basis, Linear Transformation, Linear Equations, The Algebra of Linear Transformations, Kernel, Range, Isomorphism, Algebra of Matrices, Rank of a Matrix, Determinants, Matrix Representation of a Linear Transformation, Change of Bases, Eigen values and Eigen Vectors, Cayley-Hamilton Theorem, Invariant Subspaces, Linear Functionals, Dual Spaces, Canonical Forms: Diagonal Form, Triangular Form, Jordan Form, Inner Product Spaces.


Section- 5


Discrete Mathematics

Basic Concepts of Graph Theory, Multigraph and Weighted Graphs, Paths and Circuits, Matrix Representation of Graphs, Eulerian Path and Circuits, Hamiltorian Path and Circuits. Shortest Path in Weighted Graph, Planar Graphs, K-Connected and K-Edge-Connected Graphs, Chromatic Number, Edge Colouring of Graphs, Vizing's Theorem. Trees and Cut Sets, Trees, Rooted Trees, Path Lengths in Rooted Trees, Spanning Tree and Cut Set, Minimum Spanning Tree.

Sets and Multisets, Relations and Functions, Equivalence Relations, Partial Order Relations, Chains and Antichains. Permutations, Combinations, Selection with & without Replacement, Permutation and Combinations of Multisets. Discrete Probability, The Rules of Sum & Product, Pigeon Hole Principle, Inclusion-Exclusion Principle and Discrete Numeric Functions:  Manipulation of Numeric Functions. Asymptotic Behavior of Numeric Function. Generating Functions, Recurrence Relations, Linear Recurrence Relation with Constant Coefficients and their Solutions.


Section- 6

Operations Research:

Introduction to Operations Research, Linear Programming, Principles of Simplex Method, Simplex Method in Tabular Form, Duality and Dual Simplex Method, Degeneracy & Cycling. Assignment and Transportation Problems, Nonlinear Programming, Quadratic Programming, Separable Programming, Integer Programming, Dynamic Programming. Network Analysis, Introduction of Network Analysis, Shortest Path Problem by PERT & CPM.

Queuing Theory, Probability Description of Arrivals and Service Times, Objectives and Different Characteristics of a Queuing System, Deterministic Queuing System, Steady-State Behaviour of Markovian and Earlangian Models (M/M/1, M/M/C, M/Ek/l). Introduction to Discrete Time Queuing System, Inventory Theory, Deterministic Economic Lot Size Models and their Extensions, Models with Lost Sales and Partially Backlogged, Continuous Production with Varying Demand Rates. Probabilistic Model Time Independent and Time Dependent with and without Lead Time.


Section- 7


Direction Cosines and Direction Ratios, Projections, Equation of a Plane in Various Forms, System of Planes, Two Sides of a Plane, Length of the Perpendicular from a Point to a Plane, Bisector of Angles Between Two Planes, Line of Greatest Slope, Volume of a Tetrahedron. Equation of a Plane in General and Symmetrical Form, Angle between a Line and a Plane, Coplanar Lines, Shortest Distance between Two Lines, Skew Lines. Equation of a Sphere in Various Forms, Plane Section, Intersection of Two Spheres, Sphere through a Given Circle, Tangent Plane, Pole and Polar Plane, Orthogonality of Two Spheres. Quadratic Cone with Vertex at the Origin, Enveloping Cone, Condition of Tangency & Tangent Plane, Reciprocal Cone, Mutually Perpendicular Generators of a Cone, Right Circular Cone, Cylinder and Enveloping Cylinder, Director Sphere, Tangent Plane and Condition of Tangency, Polar Plane, Normal.


Differential Geometry

Curves in the Plane and in Space, Curvature and Torsion, Global Properties of Curves, Vector Fields, Surfaces in Three Dimensions, The First Fundamental Form, Curvature of Surfaces, Gaussisan Curvature and the Gauss map, The Weingarten Map, Geodesics, Minimal Surfaces, The Exponential Map, Gauss's TheoremaEgregium, The Gauss-Bonnet Theorem, Rigid Motions and Congruence, Isometries.



Functions of Single Variable, Limit, Continuity and Differentiability, Mean Value Theorems, Indeterminate Forms and L'Hospital Rule, Maxima and Minima, Expansion of Functions, Functions of Two Variables, Limit, Continuity, Partial Derivatives, Euler's Theorem for Homogeneous Functions, Total Derivatives, Maxima and Minima, Lagrange Method of Multipliers, Concavity and Points of Inflexion, Curvature and Evolutes, Asymptotes, Singular Points, Curve Tracing, Envelopes, Change of Independent Variables,  Evaluation of Definite and Improper Integrals, Beta and Gamma Functions, Double and Triple Integrals and their Applications.



Force Vectors, Equilibrium of a Particle, Force System Resultants, Equilibrium of a Rigid Body, Friction, Kinematics of a Particle, Kinetics of a Particle:  Force and Acceleration, Work and Energy, Impulse and Momentum, Planar Kinematics of a Rigid Body, Planar Kinetics of a Rigid Body: Force and Acceleration, Work and Energy, Impulse and Momentum


Vector Analysis:

Scalar and Vector Product of Two and Three Vectors, Differentiation of Vectors: Fundamental Theorems on Differentiation, Geometrical Significance, Velocity and Acceleration. Integration of Vectors: Standard Results on Integration of Vectors. Differential Operators: Del; Gradient of Scalar Point Function, Properties, Directional Derivative, Tangent Plane and Normal. Divergence and Curl of a Vector Point Function, Vector Identities. Line Integral, Surface and Volume Integrals, Gauss's, Stokes' and Green's Theorem.


Section- 8


Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE):

First Order Ordinary Differential Equations, Existence and Uniqueness of Solutions, Singular Solutions, Initial Value Problems for First Order Linear ODEs, System of First Order Linear ODEs. General Theory of Homogenous and Non-Homogeneous Linear ODEs, Variation of Parameters, Linear ODEs of Higher Order with Constant Coefficients, Linear Second Order ODEs with Variable Coefficients.


Partial Differential Equations (PDE):

Linear, Quasilinear and Nonlinear First Order Partial Differential Equations, Lagrange and Charpit Methods, Cauchy Problem for First Order PDEs. Classification of Second Order PDEs, General Solution of Higher Order PDEs with Constant Coefficients, Method of Separation of Variables for Laplace, Heat and Wave Equations.


Numerical Analysis:

Finite Differences, Interpolation, Numerical Solutions of Algebraic and Transcendental Equations, Numerical Solution of System of Linear Algebraic Equations, Numerical Differentiation, Numerical Integration, Numerical Solutions of ODEs.





Instructions for Examination Section: Question bank contains two parts

Part I: Aptitude Test

Part II: Subject specific Test

24 questions should be selected from Part I. Part II is divided into eight section and 7 questions should be given from each section, so in all 56 questions from Part II.

Part I

Aptitude: Reasoning and General Science.

Part II

Section- 1


Probability: Basic Concepts of Probability, Different Approaches to Define Probability, The Axioms of Probability, Some Important Theorems on Probability, Conditional Probability, Baye's Theorem.


Random Variables: Definition, Types: Discrete and Continuous Random Variable, Probability Distributions, Distribution Functions, Independence of Random Variables, Joint, Marginal and Conditional Distributions.


Expectation and Variance: Definition, Properties, Theorems Based on Expectation, Variance and Standard Deviation in terms of Expectation, Some Theorems on Variance, Conditional Expectation and Conditional Variance, Moments.


Generating Functions and Law of Large Numbers: Moment Generating Function, Cumulant Generating Function, Characteristic Function, and Probability Generating Function. Chebychev Inequality, Convergence in Probability, Law of Large Numbers, Central Limit Theorem and its different forms.


Theoretical Probability Distributions (Dicrete and Continuous): Mixtures of Probability Distributions, Some Common Distributions: Bernoulli, Uniform, Binomial, Poisson, Geometric, Rectangular, Exponential, Normal, Cauchy, Hypergeometric, Multinomial, Laplace, Negative Binomial, Beta, Gamma, Lognormal and Compound, Poisson Distribution, Weibull Distribution. Distributions of Functions of Random Variables. Transformations, Moments, M.G.F., P.G.F. Independence of Random Variables, Convolutions, Random Vectors, Joint Distributions, Joint M.G.F., Mixed Moments and Variance- Covariance Matrix.

Section- 2

Sampling Techniques: Probability Sampling and Non- Probability Sampling Schemes, Simple Random Sampling, Stratified Random Sampling, Systematic Sampling, Cluster Sampling, Two-Stage Sampling & Two-Phase Sampling Methds, Ratio Estimator, Product Estimator and Regression Estimator.

Statistical Inference: Estimation Theory, Point and Interval Estimation, M.L.E., Method of Moments etc., Elementary Theory of Testing of Hypothesis, Test of Significance Based on Chi-square Distribution, Test of Significance in Sampling of Attributes (Large Samples), Test of Significance Based on t, F and Z Distribution (Small Samples), Non-Parametric Test.

Section- 3

Sampling distributions: t, F and χ2 Distributions and Their Non-Central Forms, Moments, M.G.F., C.G.F., C.F. of t, F and χ2 distribution and their properties, Application of t, F and χ2 Distribution and their properties.

Section- 4


Design of Experiments: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), One Way and Two Way with One Observation Per Cell, Principles of Design of Experiments, Complete Randomized Design, Randomized Block Designs, Latin Square Design, Factorial Experiments, Confounding, Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA), Incomplete Block Designs, Concepts and Applications.

Section- 5

Source of Population Data-World: Census and Sample Surveys, Registration of Vital Events, Demographic Surveys, Population Registers. India: Census, Civil Registration System, Sample Registration Scheme, National Sample Survey, Demographic Surveys and Other Sources, Nature and limitation of Data From Each of the Sources.

Rates of Population Growth: Arithmetic, Geometric and Exponential Rates of Growth, Doubling Time, Location of Events in Time, Concept of Population Stabilization, Method of Population Projections, Inter-Censal/ Post-Censal Estimates of Population.

Population Theories: Theories of Population Growth- Malthus to Modern, Limits to Population Growth, Theory of Demographic Transition, Theories Related to Fertility, Migration and Urbanization.

Fertility and Mortality: Concepts and Measures of Fertility and Mortality, Levels, Trends, Differentials and Determinants, Sources of Data, Framework of Fertility Analysis, Bongaart's Proximate Determinants of Fertility, Replacement Level of Fertility, Infant Mortality and Maternal Mortality.

Life Table: Basic Concept of Life Table, Types and Forms of Life Table and Model life table.

Morbidity: Concepts and Definitions of Health and Morbidity, Measures of Morbidity, Sources of Data on Morbidity and Mortality.

Reproductive Health: Concept and Framework, Reproductive Morbidity, Prevalence of RTI (Reproductive Tract Infection), STD's and HIV/AIDs, Estimated Levels and Interventions.

Migration and Urbanization: Basic Concepts and Definitions, Types of Migrations-Internal and International, Trends and Differentials of Migrations, Determinants and Consequences of Migration, Concepts and Definition of Urban, Trends and Patterns of Urbanization in India, Issues in Urbanization and Urban Problems in Developing Countries with Focus on India.

Population, Development and environment: Concepts, Definitions, Relevance and Measurement, Inter-Relationship between Population Growth, Environment and Sustainable Development with Special Reference to India. Human Development Index. Implications of Population Growth on Food Supply, Water, Sanitation, Housing, Employment, Health and Education. Ecological Balance and its Maintenance.

Population and Gender: Concept of Gender- its Relationship with Components of Population- Fertility, Mortality, Migration.

Status of Women- Social, Economic, Cultural and Health, Women Empowerment and its Demographic Consequences.

Population Policies and Programs: Population Policies in Context to Growth, Structure, Distribution and Quality of Life; Policies Related to Medical Termination of Pregnancy  (MTP), Age at Marriage, Sex Determination Tastes etc.

National and State Population Policies in India. Evaluation of Family Programming Programs in India. Goals and Achievements of Family Welfare program, Methods of Programme Impact Assessment.

Section- 6

Statistical Quality Control (SQC): Basics of Quality Control, Benefits of Statistical Quality Control, Process Control and Product Control, Control Charts, Tools for SQC, Control Charts for Variables, Control Chart for Attributes, Natural Tolerance Limits and Specification Limits, Acceptance Sampling Inspection Plans, Sampling Inspection Plans for Attributes.

Index Number: Introduction, Basic Problems Involved in the Construction of Index Number, The Criteria of a Good Index Number, Classification of Index Numbers, Base Shifting, Splicing and Deflating of Index Numbers, Index of Industrial Production, Index of Agricultural Production, Uses of Index Numbers.

Demand Analysis: Introduction, Demand and Supply, Price Elasticity of Demand, Partial and Cross Elasticities of Demand, Types of Data Required for Estimating Elasticities, Engel's Law and Engle Curves, Pareto's Law of Income Distribution, Utility Function.

Statistics in Psychology and Education: Introduction, Scaling Individual Test Items in Terms of Difficulty, Scaling of Scores on a Test (Z/σ scores, Standard Scores, Normalized Scores, T Scores, Percentile Scores), Scaling of Ranking and Ratings in Terms of Normal Probability Curves, Reliability of Test Scores, Validity of Test Scores, Intelligence Test and Intelligence Quotient.

Section- 7

Time Series: Time Series as a Stationary and Non Stationary Stochastic Process, Time Domain Analysis Based on Correlogram, Sample Autocovariance Function and Autocorrelation Function at lag K, lag Correlation. Measurement of Cyclic Fluctuations: Periodogram and its Relation with acvf, Harmonic Analysis. Measurement of Irregular Component: Variate Difference Method.

AR(p) Process, MA(q) Process, Mixed ARMA(p,q) Process, Stationarity and Inevitability conditions, ARIMA (p, d, q) model, Estimation of Parameters, Tests for Stationarity.

Stochastic  Process: Markov Chain having Two States, n-step Transition Probabilities, Classification of States, Recurrent and Transient States, Chapman-Kolmogorov equations, Stationary Probability Theorems and Limit Theorem for Ergodic Chains, Martingales.

Poisson Process, Birth and Death Process, Random Walk and Gambler's Ruin Problem, Wiener Process, Renewal Theory and its Application, Branching Chains: Discrete Process (Galton-Watson), Continuous Process (Markov Branching), Fundamental Theorem of Extinction.

Multivariate Analysis: Multivariate Normal Distribution Marginal and Conditional Distributions, Characteristics Functions. Wishart Distributions and its Properties. Hotelling T2, Mahalanobis D2 and Their Applications.

Classification and Discriminate Analysis. Principal Component Analysis. Canonical Correlations and Variables. Factor Analysis, MANOVA.

Econometrics:  Linear Regression Model, Estimation and Testing of Regression Coefficients. Confidence Interval Estimation, R2 and Adjusted R2. Prediction in Linear Squares Modes. Use of Extraneous Information in Terms of Exact Linear Restrictions.

Tests for Structural Changes, Uses of Dummy Variables. Problems of Multicollinearity: its Detection and Remedies. Linear Regression Model with Non Spherical Disturbances:

Simultaneous Equation Model: Basic Concepts, Problem of Identification, Estimation of Parameters.

 Section- 8

Abstract Algebra:

Group, Subgroup, Permutation Group, Cyclic Group, Cosets, Lagrange's Theorem, Homomorphism and Isomorphism of Group, Cayley's Theorem, Normal Subgroup and Quotient Group, Fundamental Theorem of Homomorphism of Group (First, Second and Third Theorem of Isomorphism), p-groups, Sylow's Theorems, Commutator, Series of Subgroups, Solvable Groups. Rings, Integral Domain, Division Ring, Field, Simple Properties of Ring, Subring, Subfield, Ring Homomorphism and Ring Isomorphism, Ideal, Principal Ideal, Principal Ideal Ring, Quotient Ring, Prime Ideal, Maximal Ideal, Euclidean Ring and its Properties, Divisibility, Euclidean and Principal Ideal Domains, Unique Factorization Domains, Polynomial Ring. Extension Fields, Splitting Fields, Normal and Separable Extensions, Perfect Fields, Fundamental Theorem of Galois Theory.


Linear Algebra:

Basic Concepts of Linear Algebra: Vector Spaces, Subspaces, Quotient Spaces, Linear Dependence, Basis, Linear Transformation, Linear Equations, The Algebra of Linear Transformations, Kernel, Range, Isomorphism, Algebra of Matrices, Rank of a Matrix, Determinants, Matrix Representation of a Linear Transformation, Change of Bases, Eigenvalues and Eigen Vectors, Cayley-Hamilton Theorem, Invariant Subspaces, Linear Functionals, Dual Spaces, Canonical Forms: Diagonal Form, Triangular Form, Jordan Form, Inner Product Spaces.


Operations Research:

Introduction to Operations Research, Linear Programming, Principles of Simplex Method, Simplex Method in Tabular Form, Duality and Dual Simplex Method, Degeneracy & Cycling. Assignment and Transportation Problems. Nonlinear Programming, Quadratic Programming, Separable Programming, Integer Programming, Dynamic Programming. Network Analysis, Introduction of Network analysis, Shortest Path Problem by PERT & CPM , Queuing Theory, Probability Description of Arrivals and Service Times, Objectives and Different Characteristics of a Queuing System, Deterministic Queuing System, Steady-State Behaviour of Markovian and Earlangian Models (M/M/1, M/M/C, M/Ek/l). Introduction to Discrete Time Queuing System. Inventory Theory, Deterministic Economic Lot Size Models and Their Extensions, Models with Lost Sales and Partially Backlogged, Continuous Production with Varying Demand Rates. Probabilistic Model Time Independent and Time Dependent with and without Lead Time.

Numerical Analysis:

Finite Differences, Interpolation, Numerical Solutions of Algebraic and Transcendental Equations, Numerical Solution of System of Linear Algebraic Equations, Numerical Differentiation, Numerical Integration, Numerical Solutions of ODEs.










Quantum Mechanics:


Schrödinger equation, Ehrenefest's theorem, Uncertainty principle, Potential problems- Wells and barriers, Harmonic oscillator, Rigid Rotator and Hydrogen Atom, Different type of operators, Hilbert space, Schrödinger, Heisenberg and Interaction matrix representation, Identical particles, Pauli exclusion principle, Stern-Gerlach experiment, Spin matrices for electron, Angular momentum operator, CG coefficients, Wigner-Eckart theorem. Time independent perturbation theory, Non-degenerate and degenerate cases, Variational method, WKB approximation, Time dependent perturbation theory, Harmonic perturbation, Fermi's golden rule, Transition probabilities, Adiabatic and Sudden approximation, Semi classical treatment of radiation; Quantum Theory of Scattering: Collision in 3-D and scattering, Laboratory and CM reference frames, Scattering amplitude, Differential Born approximation, Applications of Born approximation, Partial Wave Analysis and Phase Shift, Applications of PWA, The Lippmam-Schwinger equation; Relativistic wave equations: Klein-Gordan equation, Solution of Klein-Gordan equation, Dirac's relativistic equation, Solution of Dirac's equation; Quantization of Fields: Classical approach to field theory, Second quantization, Quantum equation of field, Quantization of non-relativistic Schrödinger equation, Creation, Annihilation and Number Operators, Quantization of Klein-Gordan equation and Dirac equation.


Condensed Matter Physics:


Crystal structure, Symmetry elements, Bravis lattice, Interatomic forces, Analysis of strain, elastic compliance and stiffness constants for Cubic Crystals, elastic energy density, Vibration of crystals with monatomic basis, two atoms per premitive basis, quantization of elastic waves, inelastic scattering by phonons, phonon heat capacity, density of states in one and three dimensions, Debye model and Einstein model; Nearly free electron model, Kronig-penney model, band gap in semiconductors, impurity conductivity, Fermi surfaces, tight bonding method for energy gap, De Hass-van Alfen affect; Superconductivity, properties, types, Meissner effect, London theory, Cooper Pairs, coherence length, flux quantization, BCS theory, High Tc Superconductivity, Classical & Qauntum theory of Diamagnetism and Paramagnetism, Cooling by isontropic demagnetization, Heisenberg theory of Ferromagnetism and Antiferromagnetism, Ferromagnetic domains, magnetic bubble domains ,Nuclear magnetic resonance, hyperfine splitting, Nuclear quadrupole resonance, ferromagnetic resonance, Antiferromagnetic resonance, Electron paramagnetic resonance.


Mathematical Physics:


Vector analysis, Introduction, rank and number of components of a tensor, contravariant and covariant tensors, Function of complex variable, derivative and the Cauchy-Riemann differential equations, analytic function, line integral of complex function, Cauchy's integral theorem, Cauchy's integral formula, Taylor's and Laurent series, Cauchy's residues theorem, singular points of an analytic function, evaluation of residues, Liouville's theorem, evaluation of definite integrals, Second-order homogeneous and nonhomogeneous differential equations with constant and variable coefficients.Series solution method, solutions and basic properties like orthogonality, recurrence relations, graphical representation and generating functions of Bessel's, Hermite's Legendere's, Laguerre's and associated Legender functions. Laplace, Poisson, Helmholtz, Wave and Diffusion equations. Laplace transforms, Fourier transform



Classical Mechanics:


System of particles: Conservation laws, Constrained motion, Constraints, Degree of freedom, Generalised co-ordinates. Variational principle and Lagrangian Formulation: Calculus of variations, Euler-Lagrange differential equation, Hamilton's principle, Deduction of Lagrange's equations of motion by different method, D'Alembert's principle, Rayleigh's dissipation function, Lagrangian for a charged particle in an electromagnetic field. Applications of Lagrange's equations of motion, Non-holonomic system: Lagrange's method of undetermined multipliers, Conservation theorems, Routhian function.

Hamiltonian Formulation of Mechanics: Phase space and the motion of the system, Hamiltonian, Hamilton's canonical equations of motion, Physical significance of H, Hamilton's canonical equations of motion in different co-ordinate systems, Applications of Hamiltonian's equation of motion, Hamiltonian for a charged particle in an ectromagnetic field, Principle of least action, Canonical transformations, Infinitesimal contact transformation, Hamilton-Jacobi method, H-J equation for Hamilton's characteristic function, Application of H-J method, Action and angle variables, Poisson brackets, Jacobi's identity, Infinitesimal contact transformations, interpretation in terms of Poisson brackets, The angular momentum and Poisson brackets, Poisson bracket in Quantum Mechanics, Lagrange's brackets, Liouville's theorem.

Motion under Central Force: Equivalent one body problem, General features of central force motion, Equivalent one dimensional problem-features of orbits, Inverse square law-Kepler problem, Virial theorem, Rutherford scattering, Center of mass and Laboratory co-ordinates, Transformation of scattering problem to laboratory co-ordinates. Relativistic Mechanics: Basic postulates of Relativity, Lorentz transformations, Relativistic generalization of Newton's law, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulation of relativistic mechanics, covariant Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulation.


Atomic, Molecular and LASER Physics:


Quantum states of an electron in an atom; Electron spin; Stern-Gerlach experiment; Spectrum of Hydrogen, helium and alkali atoms; Relativistic corrections for energy levels of hydrogen; Hyperfine structure and isotopic shift; width of spectral lines; LS & JJ coupling; Zeeman, Paschen Back & Stark effect; X-ray spectra; Electron spin resonance, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Rotational, vibrational, electronic, and Raman spectra of diatomic molecules; Frank - Condon principle and selection rules; Spontaneous and stimulated emission, Einstein A & B coefficients; Different Laser assemblies, optical pumping, population inversion, rate equations; Modes of resonators and coherence length.



Statistical and Thermal Physics:


Thermodynamic equilibrium, infinitesimal quasistatic process, reversible & irreversible processes, Carnot's engine, laws of Thermodynamics, Entropy, Principle of increase of entropy, Maxwell's relations, Equilibrium between Phases, Triple point, Clausius Clapeyron's equation, Helmholtz free energy, Enthalpy, Gibb's function, Thermodynamic potentials, Foundations of Statistical Mechanics, Specification of states of system, Kinetic theory of gases, Energy distribution function, most probable, average & r.m.s. velocities, equipartition of energy, Contact between statistics and thermodynamics, Classical ideal gas, Entropy of mixing , Gibb's paradox; Microcanonical, canonical and Grand-canonical ensembles, Phase space, Trajectories and density of states, Liouville's theorem, partition function, calculation of statistical quantities, Energy and Density fluctuations; Density matrix, Statistics of ensembles, Statistics of indistinguishable particles, Maxwell-Boltzman, Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics, Properties of ideal Bose and Fermi gases, Bose-Einstein condensation; Landau's theory of phase transition, Critical indices, Brownian motion, Langevin theory.



Advanced Electronics:


Semiconductor Physics, conduction by drift and diffusion of charge, P N junction, diode equation, Rectification and Power Supply, Zener diode, Transitstor and transistor Amplifiers, frequency response, Field effect Transistor and MOSFET, Circuit characteristics, Amplifier with feedback, Oscillators and Digital Circuits, Operational Amplifier and its applications, Logic gates Circuit realization on logic functions, Hall effect, Four layer diode (P-N-P-N), SCR, Gate characteristics, DIAC, TRIAC, light activated Thyristor and their applications

Analog   Modulation:  Amplitude modulation, D.S.B.S.C.  Modulation, S.S.B.  Modulation, vestigial sideband modulation, Frequency modulation, phase modulation; Digital modulation:  PAM,   PWM, PPM, Pulse-code modulation, Delta modulation, adaptive delta modulation, ASK, FSK, PSK, DPSK.

Fiber Optics Communication: Basic Concept of Fiber optics, comparison of Fiber cables with conventional metallic cables, Optical Fibers- step index, single and multimode, graded index, Optical sources and detectors.



Nuclear Physics:


Basic nuclear properties: size, shape and charge distribution, spin and parity. Binding energy, semi-empirical mass formula, liquid drop model. Nature of the nuclear force, form of nucleon-nucleon potential, charge-independence and charge-symmetry of nuclear forces. Deuteron problem. Evidence of shell structure, single-particle shell model, its validity and limitations. Rotational spectra. Elementary ideas of alpha, beta and gamma decays and their selection rules. Fission and fusion. Nuclear reactions, reaction mechanism, compound nuclei and direct reactions. Classification of fundamental forces. Elementary particles and their quantum numbers (charge, spin, parity, isospin, strangeness, etc.). Gellmann-Nishijima formula. Quark model, baryons and mesons. C, P, and T invariance. Application of symmetry arguments to particle reactions. Parity non-conservation in weak interaction. Relativistic kinematics.



Electromagnetic Field Theory:


Electrostatics: Gauss's law and its applications, Laplace and Poisson equations, boundary value problems, Dielectrics and conductors; Magnetostatics: Energy in a magnetic field, Biot-Savart law, Ampere's theorem, Vector potential and Magnetic induction Plane Electromagnetic Waves and Wave Equation : Maxwell's equations, Plane wave in different medium, Frequency dispersion characteristics of dielectrics, conductors and plasmas, superposition of waves in one dimension, group velocity, boundary conditions on the fields at interfaces,  Dispersion relations, Poynting theorem and conservation of energy and momentum; Relativistic Electrodynamics: Vector and Scalar potentials, Gauge transformations, Mathematical properties of the space-time, special relativity, Invariance of electric charge, covariance of electrodynamics, Transformation of electromagnetic fields, Electromagnetic field tensor, Tensor description of Maxwell's equation; Radiation by moving charges: Radiation- from moving charges and dipoles and retarded potentials.


Bioscience and Biotechnology

30% questions would be of general aptitude and 70% from core topics in Bioscience and Biotechnology.

1.       Diversity of Life forms.

2.       Biochemistry and Biophysics.

3.       Cell and Molecular Biology.

4.       Genetics.

5.       Plant Physiology.

6.       Animal Physiology.

7.       Developmental Biology.

8.       Immunology.

9.       Analytical Techniques and Methods in Biology.

10.    rDNA Technology.

11.    Applied Biology.

12.    Ecology and Evolution.


Taxonomy: Concepts of species and hierarchical taxa, biological nomenclature, classical and quantitative methods of taxonomy of microbes plants and animals. Important criteria used for classification in each taxon. Classification of plants, animals.

Structural organization in living organisms: Unicellular, colonial and multicellular forms. Levels of organization of tissues, organs and systems. Comparative anatomy, adaptive radiation, adaptive modifications.

Bacteria: General features, structural organisation, nutrition, growth, respiration and reproduction, Methanogens and Methylotrophs, Chemolithotrophs, Phototrophs, Sulphur reducing bacteria, Archaebacteria

Virus: Nature of viruses, organisation of virion, animal, plant and bacterial viruses, virus replication, cultivation of viruses and virulence factor, serology

Natural history of Indian subcontinent: Major habitat types of the subcontinent, geographic origins and migrations of species. Common Indian mammals, birds. Seasonality and phenology of the subcontinent.

Economically important organisms: Common parasites and pathogens of humans, domestic animals and crops.

biochemistry and biophysics

Biomolecules: Structure of atoms, molecules and chemical bonds. Hydrogen bonding and structure of water molecule, lonization of water, pH and colligative properties of water. Composition, structure and function of biomolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids and vitamins). Metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids nucleotides and vitamins.

Stablizing interactions: Van der Waals, electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interaction, etc.

Principles of biophysical chemistry: pH, buffer, reaction kinetics, thermodynamics, colligative properties.

Bioenergetics: First and second law of thermodynamics, concept of free energy, change in standard free energy, ATP and its hydrolysis, glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, coupled reaction, group transfer, biological energy transducers.

Enzymology: Principles of catalysis, enzymes and enzyme kinetics, enzyme regulation, mechanism of enzyme catalysis, isozymes, enzyme technology, immobilization of enzymes, industrial application.

Confirmation of proteins: Ramachandran plot, Alpha-helix, Beta sheet, Helix-coil transitions.

Biosynthesis of purines and pyrimidines, de novo and salvage pathway, various confirmations of nucleotides, glycosidic bond rotation, base-stacking

Mechano-Chemical Process: Molecular structure of muscle-Actin, myosin, troponin, tropomyosin, Muscle Contraction.

Ion-channels, Action Potential and propagation of neuronal computation through nerve fibre


                      CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

Membrane structure and function: Structure of model membrane, lipid bilayer and membrane protein diffusion, osmosis, ion channels, active transport, membrane pumps, mechanism of sorting and regulation of intracellular transport,electrical properties of membranes).

Structural organization and function of intracellular organelles: (Cell wall, nucleus, mitochondria, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomes, plastids, vacuoles, chloroplast, structure & function of cytoskeleton and its role in motility).

Organization of genes and chromosomes: Operon concept, unique and repetitive DNA, interrupted genes, gene families, structure of chromatin and chromosomes, heterochromatin, euchromatin, transposons. C Value paradox.

Cell division and cell cycle: Mitosis and meiosis, their regulation, steps in cell cycle, regulation and control of cell cycle.

DNA replication, repair and recombination (Unit of replication, enzymes involved, replication origin and replication fork, fidelity of replication, extrachromosomal replicons, DNA damage and repair mechanisms, homologous and site-specific recombination).

RNA synthesis and processing (transcription factors and machinery, formation of initiation complex, transcription activator and repressor, RNA polymerases, capping, elongation, and termination, RNA processing, RNA editing, splicing, and polyadenylation, structure and function of different types of RNA, RNA transport).

Protein synthesis and processing (Ribosome, formation of initiation complex, initiation factors and their regulation, elongation and elongation factors, termination, genetic code, aminoacylation of tRNA, tRNA-identity, aminoacyl tRNA synthetase, and translational proof-reading, translational inhibitors, Post- translational modification of proteins).

Control of gene expression at transcription and translation level: regulating the expression of phages, viruses, prokaryotic and eukaryotic genes, role of chromatin in gene expression and gene silencing.

Cell signaling: autocrine, paracrine and endocrine stimulation, Signalling via G-protein linked cell-surface receptors, adenylate cyclase system, inositol phosphate pathway, role of Ca2+ -ions, Signalling via enzyme-linked surface receptors, tyrosine kinases.


Mendelian Genetics: Monohybrid cross, Dihybrid cross, Law of Segregation, Law of independent assortment, Back cross, test cross, Deviations of Mendelism

Linkage and Crossing over: Tetrad analysis, mapping of gene order and centromere location in fungi.

Sex determination and sex linkage: Chromosome and gender, sex determination, sex determination, dosage compensation, sex linkage

Extra chromosomal inheritance:  Extranuclear inheritance of organelles, mitrocondrial DNA, chloroplastic DNA, Kappa particle in Paramacium, maternal effects in shell coiling in snails

Variation in chromosome structure: Origin, cytology, effect and uses of structural chromosomal aberrations : translocations, inversions, duplications, deficiencies and their role in evolution and genotypic and phenotypic variations.

Variation in chromosome number: Euploidy, origin, cytology, genetics of haploids, haploids in agriculture. Polyploid-types, origin, cytology, genetics and genome analysis. Aneuploids - Terminology and chromosome formula, origin, cytology, genetics, transmission, effect and uses of Monosomics, trisomics and nullisomics.

The gene concept: genetic and biochemical view, complementation test. Genetic code, Regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Mutations, Transposable genetic elements

Population genetics - Populations, Gene pool, Gene frequency; Hardy-Weinberg Law; concepts and rate of change in gene frequency through natural selection, migration and random genetic drift; Adaptive radiation; Isolating mechanisms; Speciation; Allopatricity and Sympatricity; Convergent evolution; Sexual selection; Co-evolution.


Photosynthesis: Light harvesting complexes; mechanisms of electron transport; photoprotective mechanisms; CO2 fixation-C3, C4 and CAM pathways.

Respiration and photorespiration: Citric acid cycle; plant mitochondrial electron transport and ATP synthesis; alternate oxidase; photorespiratory pathway.

Nitrogen metabolism: Nitrate and ammonium assimilation; amino acid biosynthesis.

Plant hormones: Biosynthesis, storage, breakdown and transport; physiological effects and mechanisms of action.

Sensory photobiology: Structure, function and mechanisms of action of phytochromes, cryptochromes and phototropins; stomatal movement; photoperiodism and biological clocks.

Solute transport and photoassimilate translocation: uptake, transport and translocation of water, ions, solutes and macromolecules from soil, through cells, across membranes, through xylem and phloem; transpiration; mechanisms of loading and unloading of photoassimilates.

Secondary metabolites: Biosynthesis of terpenes, phenols and nitrogenous compounds and their roles.

Stress physiology: Responses of plants to biotic (pathogen and insects) and abiotic (water, temperature and salt) stresses.


Blood and circulation: Blood corpuscles, haemopoiesis and formed elements, plasma function, blood volume, blood volume regulation, blood groups, haemoglobin, immunity, haemostasis.

Cardiovascular System: Comparative anatomy of heart structure, myogenic heart, specialized tissue, ECG - its principle and significance, cardiac cycle, heart as a pump, blood pressure, neural and chemical regulation of all above.

Respiratory system: Comparison of respiration in different species, anatomical considerations, transport of gases, exchange of gases, waste elimination, neural and chemical regulation of respiration.

Nervous system: Neurons, action potential, gross neuroanatomy of the brain and spinal cord, central and peripheral nervous system, neural control of muscle tone and posture.

Sense organs: Vision, hearing and tactile response.

Excretory system: Comparative physiology of excretion, kidney, urine formation, urine concentration, waste elimination, micturition, regulation of water balance, blood volume, blood pressure, electrolyte balance, acid-base balance.

Thermoregulation: Comfort zone, body temperature - physical, chemical, neural regulation, acclimatization.

Stress and adaptation

Digestive system: Digestion, absorption, energy balance, BMR.

Endocrinology and reproduction: Endocrine glands, basic mechanism of hormone action, hormones and diseases; reproductive processes, gametogenesis, ovulation, neuroendocrine regulation


Basic concepts of development : Potency, commitment, specification, induction, competence, determination and differentiation; morphogenetic gradients; cell fate and cell lineages; stem cells; genomic equivalence and the cytoplasmic determinants; imprinting; mutants and transgenics in analysis of development

Gametogenesis, fertilization and early development: Production of gametes, cell surface molecules in sperm-egg recognition in animals; embryo sac development and double fertilization in plants; zygote formation, cleavage, blastula formation, embryonic fields, gastrulation and formation of germ layers in animals; embryogenesis, establishment of symmetry in plants; seed formation and germination.

Morphogenesis and organogenesis in animals : Cell aggregation and differentiation in Dictyostelium; axes and pattern formation in Drosophila, amphibia and chick; organogenesis - vulva formation in Caenorhabditis elegans, eye lens induction, limb development and regeneration in vertebrates; differentiation of neurons, post embryonic development- larval formation, metamorphosis; environmental regulation of normal development; sex determination.

Morphogenesis and organogenesis in plants: Organization of shoot and root apical meristem; shoot and root development; leaf development and phyllotaxy; transition to flowering, floral meristems and floral development in Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum




Basic concepts of immunology: Specific and nonspecific defense mechanisms (innate and acquired immunity), organs and cells of immune system.

Antigen and Antigenicity: Concept of immunogens, antigens, heptans, mitogens and superantigens. Properties of antigens, cross reactivity, special group of antigens: bacterial antigens, viral antigens, cell surface antigens (MHC), autoantigens, isoantigens and frossman antigens (Heterophilic antigens).

Immunoglobulins: Structure and properties of immunoglobulins, immunoglobulin isotypes and their sigificance, immunoglobulins as antigens : isotypes, allotypes and idiotypes.

Complement System.

Hybrid and Chimeric monoclonal antibodies, catalytic antibodies

Surface plasmon resonance, Biosensor assay for assessing ligand-receptor interaction. 


Chromatographic methods for macromolecule separation- TLC and Paper chromatography, gel permeation; ion exchange; hydrophobic, Reverse-phase and Affinity chromatography; HPLC, FPLC and GLC.

Electrophoretic techniques: Theory and application of polyacrylamide and agarose gel electrophoresis, capillary electrophoresis; 2D electrophoresis; Disc gel electrophoresis; Gradient electrophoresis; Pulse field gel electrophoresis, Isoelecric focusing.

Microscopy: Microscope and its modifications- Light, Phase contrast and interference, Fluorescence, Confocal, Electron (TEM and SEM), Electron tunneling and Atomic Force Microscopy

Centrifugation: Basic principle and theory, Types of centrifuges- Micro centrifuge, High speed and Ultracentrifuges; Preparative centrifugation, differential and density gradient centrifugation. Analytical centrifugation and its applications.

Spectroscopy: Principle, instrumentation applications in biological sciences: UV-visible spectrophotometry Florometry and Atomic absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Principle and application of NMR, X-ray crystallography, API-electrospray, mass spectroscopy and MALDI-TOF, Circular Dichroism

Radioactivity: Radioactive and stable isotopes; Pattern and rate of radioactive decay; Measurement of radioactivity; Geiger-Muller counter; solid and liquid scintillation counters (Basic principal, instrumentation and technique); brief idea of radiation dosimetry; Cerenkov radiation; autoradiography.

Bioinformatics: Introduction of computers: Basic components and their functions, hardware and software, Input-Output devices. Basic concepts about data and information, Representation of data in computers in binary, bits and bytes, Biological Databases

Statisitcal Methods: Measures of central tendency and dispersal; probability distributions (Binomial, Poisson and normal); Sampling distribution; Difference between parametric and non-parametric statistics; Confidence Interval; Errors; Levels and test of significance; Regression and Correlation; t-test; Analysis of variance.

Methods in field biology: Methods of estimating population density of animals and plants, ranging patterns through direct, indirect and remote observations, sampling methods in the study of behavior, habitat characterization: ground and remote sensing methods.

Plant and Animal tissue culture techniques: Tissue and cell culture methods for plants and animals, Basic aspetic techniques used for cell and tissue culture, Properties of media, balanced salt solutions, Natural media, Synthetic Media, Complex media, Concept and Preservation of cell lines: cryopreservation, cell banks, transporting cells. Somatic Hybridization, Hybridoma technology.


Introduction and historical background of genetic engineering, basic patent rules, ethical issues and biosafety guidelines.

Tools in rDNA technology: Isolation of genomic DNA, RNA from prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Isolation of Bacteriophage DNA and plasmid DNA., restriction enzymes, ligases and other enzymes, extraction and analysis of mRNA from eukaryotic cells, synthesis and cloning of cDNA, construction of genomic library, identification and analysis of recombinant clones, DNA primer and probe.

Cloning Vectors: Plasmids; structural and functional organization, replication, classification, incompatibility groups. Examples of plasmid vectors: pBR322 and pUC series of vectors, shuttle vectors, Phages; Development of phage based vectors, insertion and replacement vectors, M13 and P2 phage based vectors, High capacity vectors; Cosmids, phagemid, phasemid, YAC, BAC.

Human Genome Project: Importance, history and current status.


Genetic engineering: Transgenic animals and plants, molecular approaches to diagnosis and strain identification.

Chloroplast engineering; gene containment. Biotransformation using plant cells.

Breeding: Breeding in plants and animals, including marker - assisted selection

Metabolic engineering and industrial products: Biotechnological innovation in pharmaceutical, health, agriculture and industrial sectors General strategy towards production of plant cell products. Microbial fermentation and production of small and macro molecules, Isolation and screening of industrially important microbes, Improvement of strains, Industrial production of various metabolites with special example of antibiotics, organic acids and alcohol, Biopolymers (-PHB, Xanthum gum), Industrial production of Biofuel, steroids and single cell protein, Genetic engineering for food and additives, Edible vaccines, Single cell protein production, cultivation of edible fungi-Mushroom. Biosensors (NH4, Sulphide) and Biofilms.

Application in agriculture sector: Biofertilizers (Rhizobium and BGA). Role of nif genes in Biological Nitrogen fixation, Biopesticides (Bt toxin)

                      Quality control of food: Detection systems, enzyme immunoassay and Radioimmunoassay.

Microbes in the disposal of sewage: sewage treatment processes, sewage water and transmission of diseases, indicator organisms.


Environment: Physical environment; biotic environment; biotic and abiotic interactions.

Habitat and Niche: Concept of habitat and niche.

Population Ecology: Characteristics of a population; population growth curves; population regulation; life history strategies (r and K selection); concept of metapopulation - demes and dispersal, interdemic extinctions, age structured populations.

Species Interactions: Types of interactions, interspecific competition, herbivory, carnivory, pollination, symbiosis.

Community Ecology: Nature of communities; community structure and attributes; levels of species diversity and its measurement; edges and ecotones.

Succession: Types; mechanisms; changes involved in succession; concept of climax.

Ecosystem Ecology: Ecosystem structure; function; energy flow and mineral cycling (C, N, P); primary production and decomposition; structure and function of some Indian ecosystems: terrestrial (forest, grassland) and aquatic (fresh water, marine, eustarine).

Biogeography: Major terrestrial biomes; theory of island biogeography; biogeographical zones of India.

Applied Ecology: Environmental pollution; global environmental change; biodiversity: status, monitoring and documentation; major drivers of biodiversity change; biodiversity management approaches.

Conservation Biology: Conservation strategies. Rare, endangered species, major approaches to management, Indian case studies on conservation/management strategy (Project Tiger, Biosphere reserves).

Emergence of evolutionary thoughts: Lamarck; Darwin-concepts of variation, adaptation, struggle, fitness and natural selection; Spontaneity of mutations; The evolutionary synthesis.

Origin of Life: Origin of basic biological molecules; Abiotic synthesis of organic monomers and polymers; Concept of Oparin and Haldane; Experiment of Miller (1953); The first cell; Evolution of prokaryotes; Origin of eukaryotic cells; Evolution of unicellular eukaryotes; Anaerobic metabolism, photosynthesis and aerobic metabolism.

Paleontology and Evolutionary History: The evolutionary time scale; Eras, periods and epoch; Major events in the evolutionary time scale; Origins of unicellular and multi cellular organisms; Major groups of plants and animals; Stages in primate evolution including Homo.

Molecular Evolution: Concepts of neutral evolution, molecular divergence and molecular clocks; Molecular tools in phylogeny, classification and identification; Protein and nucleotide sequence analysis; origin of new genes and proteins; Gene duplication and divergence.


Chemical Engineering



Properties of fluids and their classification, nature of turbulence, flow in boundary layer. Basic equations of fluid flow. Compressible & Incompressible flow in pipes and channels: shear stress and skin friction, friction from changes in velocity or direction. Flow past immersed objects, motion of particles through fluids. Flow measuring devices: working principle of orifice meter, nozzle and venture meters, rota-meter, pitot tube, Notches, wet gas meters, insertion meter. Flow machinery: working principle of pumps, turbines, compressors & blowers, selection and specification, Pumping and compressing of chemicals and gases.

Principles and laws of crushing and grinding, mean particle size and size distribution, efficiency of size reduction processes, crushing and grinding equipment, closed and open circuit grinding. Screen analysis and size separation, effectiveness of screen, particle size analysis, separation efficiency of screening equipment.

Solid-Liquid Separation: Theory of filtration, equations for compressible and incompressible cakes, constant rate and constant pressure filtration, filtration equipment.

Solid-Gas Separation: principles and applications of Cyclone separators and electrostatic precipitators.



Computational methods for solution of Linear Algebraic Equations, Eigen Values and Eigen Vectors of Matrices. Solution of Nonlinear Algebraic Equations using single and multi variable search methods. Polynomial root finding methods. Function Approximation: Least squares curve fit, Newton's interpolation formulae, Lagrangian interpolation, Pade approximation and Finite difference approximation. Integration formulae. Ordinary Differential Equations: Solution of Initial and Boundary Value Problems. Finite difference technique, Orthogonal Collocation (OC), Shooting Techniques. Partial Differential Equations: Partial Differential Equations (PDE) - Classification of PDE and Finite difference technique (Method of lines).


Applications of optimization in Chemical Engineering. Formulation of an objective function, Convexity analysis & optimality conditions for optimization problems. Unconstrained single and multi variable optimization methods. Linear programming problems: simplex method, duality in Linear Programming, two-phase method. Nonlinear programming with constraints: Necessary and sufficiency conditions. Quadratic programming, successive quadratic programming, Generalized reduced gradient (GRG) method. Dynamic Optimization, Dynamic Programming, Introduction to Mixed Integer Programming.



Static and dynamic characteristics of measuring instruments. Measurement of process variables such as temperature, pressure, composition, flow rate, level, density, etc. Lumped parameter systems-classical and multivariable control theory. Distributed parameter systems. Dynamics of process instruments and loops. Analogue and digital signals, process actuators and control equipment,  sensors, transducers and their dynamics, transfer functions and dynamic responses of simple systems, process reaction curve, controller modes (P, PI, and PID); control valves; analysis of closed loop systems including stability, frequency response and controller tuning, cascade, feed forward control.


Industrial gases:  Natural gas, coke oven gas, producer gas, water gas, LPG, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen. Manufacturing of sulphur and sulphuric acid. Phosphorus and phosophoric acid. Pesticides: DDT, BHC, Nicotine, Parathion. Chlor-alkali industries: Salt, soda ash, baking soda, caustic soda, chlorine, hydrochloric acid. Nitrogen industries: Ammonia, nitric acid, urea, fertilizer industries, ammonium sulphate, Ammonium nitrate. Surface coating industries: Pigments, paints, varnishes, lacquers, industrial coatings. Cement: Portland cement, constituents, types, raw materials and manufacturing processes. Ceramics and refractories, soaps and detergents, glycerin, pulp and paper, Coal chemicals. Vegetable oils, animal fats and oils, waxes, sugar, starches and related products. Alcohal industries: Industrial alcohol by fermentation, absolute alcohol, beers, wines and liquors. Polymer Based Industries: Plastics, production of thermoplastic and thermosetting resins.


Introduction to chemical engineering, Basic Chemical Calculations. Material Balance: General material balance equation, solving material balance problems for various unit operations, Material Balance (for process involving Chemical Reaction), degree of freedom analysis, and material balances with Recycle, Bypass and Purge. Gas Calculations: Calculation procedures for ideal and real gas systems. Energy balance: energy balances, heat capacity of gases, liquid and mixture solutions. Latent heats, heat of fusion and heat of vaporization. Fuels And Combustion: Determination of Composition by Orsat analysis of products of combustion of solid, liquid and gas fuels. Humidity and Saturation: Relative and percentage saturation, dew point, wet bulb and dry bulb temperature.


Development and applications of first and second laws; thermodynamic properties of pure substances and mixtures, their estimation and correlations; stability and equilibrium criteria for homogeneous and heterogeneous, reacting and non-reacting systems; thermodynamics of irreversible processes; principles of statistical thermodynamics.

Kinetics of homogeneous, heterogeneous reactions; ideal reactors, non-ideal flow; analysis and design for single and multiple reactions; selectivity and yield; reactor design for non-isothermal reactors; mathematical models and design of solid catalyzed gas phase, non-catalytic gas-solid reactions, gas-liquid and gas-liquid-solid reactors; residence time distribution models for micro-and macro-mixing; laboratory reactors; optimization of reactor systems.



Plant Design: Process Design and Development, General Design Considerations, the Hierarchy of Chemical Process Design, the Nature of Process Synthesis and Analysis. Developing a Conceptual Design and Finding the Best Flow sheet: Input Information and Batch versus continuous, Input-Output structure of the Flow sheet. Process Retrofits: A procedure for process retrofit, Used in HDA process. Cost Estimation: Cash flow for industrial operations, factor affecting investment and Production Costs, Capital investment Cost indexes, Method of estimating capital investment, cost estimates, plant and equipment cost estimation, and product cost estimation. Optimum Design and Design Strategy: Incremental costs, General procedure for determining optimum conditions, the Break-Even chart for production schedule and its significance for optimum analysis. Profitability Analysis: Rate of return, payback period, discount rate of return, net present worth, internal rate of return, comparing investment alternatives, Time value of money, investment, costs, sales, profits, taxes, depreciation. The structure of systems: A system and its subsystems, System Interactions, Degrees of freedom and design variables, Information flow and design variables ,Selection of design variables, Information flow and the structure of design problems, Recycle Structure of the Flow sheet, Separation Systems. Exchanger Networks and Utilities: Energy Targets; Heat Integration of Distillation Columns. Computer Aided Design Programs: Spread-Sheeting, Process Synthesis, Flow-Sheeting Software.


Analogies for momentum, heat and mass transport; shell balance approach for analysis of individual and simultaneous momentum, heat and mass transport; formulation and solution of equations of change for the three transport phenomena; hydrodynamic, thermal and concentration boundary layers; velocity, temperature and concentration distributions in turbulent flow; inter-phase transport for isothermal and non-isothermal systems.



Heat conduction with unsteady boundary conditions; recent advances in natural and forced convection; condensation and boiling phenomena; heat transfer in high speed flows; liquid metal heat transfer, radioactive metal heat-transfer between surfaces in absorbing media; complex problems involving simultaneous conduction, convection and radiation.

Steady-State Conduction in One Dimension, Convective heat transfer and the concept of heat transfer coefficient, overall heat transfer coefficient, heat transfer from extended surfaces, thermal contact resistance, critical insulation thickness, and optimum insulation thickness. Forced Convection, Dimensional analysis: Buckingham Pi theorem, Dimensional groups in heat transfer; Correlations for the heat transfer coefficient, Free Convection.                    

Boiling phenomenon, types of boiling, Correlations for pool boiling heat transfer, critical heat flux, condensation phenomena, types of condensation, film condensation on a vertical surface, turbulent film condensation, effect of non-condensable gases.

Basic concept, black body radiation, Planck's Law, Wien's Displacement Law, Stefan-Boltzmann Law, Kirchhoff's Law, Gray body; Radiation intensity of a black body, spectral emissive power of a black body over a hemisphere. Radiation heat exchange between surfaces - the view factor,

Construction of heat exchanger, fouling of a heat exchanger, LMTD, temperature distribution in multi-pass heat exchangers, individual heat transfer coefficients;

Principles of evaporation and evaporators; Types evaporators; Single and multiple effect evaporators, Calculations of a single effect evaporator.


Molecular diffusion, fluxes and measurement of diffusivities, application to diffusion in fluid and solid systems (stagnant film, equimolar, counter),Convective and interphase  mass transfer , Mass treansfer coefficients,Laminar and turbulent flow situations and correlations; two film theory and overall mass transfer coefficients , penetration and surface renewal theories.Continuous contacting Operations,Binary Distilation, multicomponent distillation, Azeotropic and extractive distillation, Ideal and non ideal stages definition of point,stage and column efficiencies;single stage calculations: differential (Rayleigh) and simple (flash) distillation, steam distillation; McCabe thiele diagram ; plate calculations, feed plate location, simple and complex fractionators. Ponchon-savarit Diagram: Adiabatic and non- adiabatic.liquid- liquid extraction; adsorption and leaching: batch leaching Gas-liquid and Liquid-Liquid plate Contactors, Flooding, tray layout, tray hydradulics, column height and overall design;, cooling towers, Drying theory, Crystallization,Use of stage and differential contact concepts in design of mass transfer equipment; methods of determining and interpretation of rate data;, absorption and extraction.


Process Safety Management; Safety Programs, Engineering Ethics, Accidents and its statistics,  Properties of Toxic Materials - Introduction, Dose and Response Curves Threshold Limit Values and Permissible Exposure Levels, Vaporization Rates; Dilution; Ventilation; Source Modelling: Leakage Rates of Liquids and Gases; Flashing and Boiling; Two-Phase Flow, Toxic and Flammable Release and Dispersion Modelling, Fires and Explosions; chemistry of fire, fire triangle, fire and explosion index (FEI), estimation, heat effects, vapor cloud explosion (VCE), boiling liquid expanding vapor explosions (BLEVE) and prevention. Industrial hygiene, Flammability, MOC; Explosions, Detonations, Blast Damage , Fire and Explosion Protection and Prevention; Inerting and Purging; Static Electricity; Ventilation , Relief Systems; Relief Sizing for Liquid, Gas, and Two-Phase Flow; Dust Explosions , Hazard Identification; DOW F&EI, HAZOP, Safety Reviews, Risk Assessment; Probability Theory; Event Tree; Fault Tree , Accident Investigations.


Air and Water pollutants; Methods of sampling, preservation of samples and analysis; Waste water characteristics - Physical and chemical composition, Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), COD, Pathogenic bacteria and chemical toxicity; Wastewater treatment processes (Pretreatment, primary, secondary, tertiary); Control methods for air & water pollutants;

Solid waste management: Characterization of solid wastes, Problems of collection and handling, Various processing techniques used in solid waste management such as compaction, incineration, Composting, landfills and biological Processing.


Data handling & analysis; sample preparation; volumetric & gravimetric analysis; electroanalytical methods: potentiometry, ion selective electrodes, conductometry;

Separation techniques and their instrumentation: centrifugation, chromatography (Liquid chromatography, Partition, Ion exchange, Paper, Thin layer, Column, Gel chromatography, GC, GC-MS, HPLC, HPLC-MS & HPTLC), electrophoresis; solvent extraction; spectroscopic methods (UV, IR, NMR); supercritical fluid extraction; Membrane separation process (Operating principles and applications, microfiltration, ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, dialysis and electrodialysis)



Inorganic Chemistry

1.       Chemical periodicity.

2.       Structure and bonding in homo- and hetero-nuclear molecules including shapes of molecules (VSEPR Theory).

3.       Concepts of acids and bases, Hard-Soft acid base concept, Non-aqueous solvents.

4.       Main group elements and their compounds: Allotropy, synthesis, structure and bonding, industrial importance of the compounds.

5.       Transition elements and coordination compounds: structure, bonding theories, spectral and magnetic properties, reaction mechanisms.

6.       Inner transition elements: spectral and magnetic properties, redox chemistry, analytical applications.

7.       Organometallic compounds: synthesis, bonding and structure, and reactivity. Organometallics in homogeneous catalysis.

8.       Cages and metal clusters.

9.       Nuclear chemistry: nuclear reactions, fission and fusion, radio-analytical techniques and activation analysis.

10.    Analytical chemistry- separation, spectroscopic, electro- and thermoanalytical methods.

11.    Bioinorganic chemistry: photosystems, porphyrins, metalloenzymes, oxygen transport, electron- transfer reactions; nitrogen fixation, metal complexes in medicine.

12.    Supramolecular chemistry.

13.    Environmental chemistry

14.    Chemistry in nanoscience and technology.

15.    Characterisation of inorganic compounds by IR, Raman, NMR, EPR, Mössbauer, UV-vis, NQR, MS, electron spectroscopy and microscopic techniques.


Organic Chemistry

1.       IUPAC nomenclature of organic molecules including regio- and stereoisomers.

2.       Principles of stereochemistry: Configurational and conformational isomerism in acyclic and cyclic compounds; stereogenicity, stereoselectivity, enantioselectivity, diastereoselectivity and asymmetric induction.

3.       Aromaticity: Benzenoid and non-benzenoid compounds - generation and reactions. Organic reactive intermediates: Generation, stability and reactivity of carbocations, carbanions, free radicals, carbenes, benzynes and nitrenes

4.       Organic reaction mechanisms involving addition, elimination and substitution reactions with electrophilic, nucleophilic or radical species. Determination of reaction pathways.

5.       Common named reactions and rearrangements - applications in organic synthesis.

6.       Organic transformations and reagents: Functional group interconversion including oxidations and reductions; common catalysts and reagents (organic, inorganic, organometallic and enzymatic). Chemo, regio and stereoselective transformations. Concepts in organic synthesis: Retrosynthesis, disconnection, synthons, linear and convergent synthesis, umpolung of reactivity and protecting groups.

7.       Asymmetric synthesis: Chiral auxiliaries, methods of asymmetric induction - substrate, reagent and catalyst controlled reactions; determination of enantiomeric and diastereomeric excess; enantio-discrimination. Resolution - optical and kinetic.

8.       Pericyclic reactions - electrocyclisation, cycloaddition, sigmatropic rearrangements and other related concerted reactions. Principles and applications of photochemical reactions in organic chemistry.

9.       Synthesis and reactivity of common heterocyclic compounds containing one or two heteroatoms (O, N, S).

10.    Chemistry of natural products: Carbohydrates, proteins and peptides, fatty acids, nucleic acids, terpenes, steroids and alkaloids. Biogenesis of terpenoids and alkaloids.

11.    Catalysis and green chemistry.

12.    Medicinal chemistry.

13.    Structure determination of organic compounds by IR, UV-Vis, 1H & 13C NMR and Mass spectroscopic techniques


Physical Chemistry:

1.       Basic principles of quantum mechanics: Postulates; operator algebra; exactly-solvable systems: particle-in-a-box, harmonic oscillator and the hydrogen atom, including shapes of atomic orbitals; orbital and spin angular momenta; tunneling.

2.       Approximate methods of quantum mechanics: Variational principle; perturbation theory up to second order in energy; applications.

3.       Atomic structure and spectroscopy; term symbols; many-electron systems and antisymmetry principle.

4.       Chemical bonding in diatomics; elementary concepts of MO and VB theories; Huckel theory for conjugated π-electron systems.

5.       Chemical applications of group theory; symmetry elements; point groups; character tables; selection rules.

6.       Molecular spectroscopy: Rotational and vibrational spectra of diatomic molecules; electronic spectra; IR and Raman activities - selection rules; basic principles of magnetic resonance.

7.       Chemical thermodynamics: Laws, state and path functions and their applications; thermodynamic description of various types of processes; Maxwell's relations; spontaneity and equilibria; temperature and pressure dependence of thermodynamic quantities; Le Chatelier principle; elementary description of phase transitions; phase equilibria and phase rule; thermodynamics of ideal and non-ideal gases, and solutions.

8.       Statistical thermodynamics: Boltzmann distribution; kinetic theory of gases; partition functions and their relation to thermodynamic quantities - calculations for model systems.

9.       Electrochemistry: Nernst equation, redox systems, electrochemical cells; Debye-Huckel theory; electrolytic conductance - Kohlrausch's law and its applications; ionic equilibria; conductometric and potentiometric titrations.

10.    Chemical kinetics: Empirical rate laws and temperature dependence; complex reactions; steady state approximation; determination of reaction mechanisms; collision and transition state theories of rate constants; unimolecular reactions; enzyme kinetics; salt effects; homogeneous catalysis; photochemical reactions.

11.    Colloids and surfaces: Stability and properties of colloids; isotherms and surface area; heterogeneous catalysis.

12.    Solid state: Crystal structures; Bragg's law and applications; band structure of solids.

13.    Polymer chemistry: Molar masses; kinetics of polymerization.

14.    Data analysis: Mean and standard deviation; absolute and relative errors; linear regression; covariance and correlation coefficient.




Organic chemistry: Chemistry of the following name reactions: Birch reduction, Benzil-benzilic acid rearrangement, Friedel-Crafts reaction, Free radical rearrangement, Grignard reaction, Gattermann-Koch reaction, Mannich reaction, Michael reaction, Pinacol-pinacolone rearrangement, Sandmeyer reaction and Vilsmeier reaction.

Basic concepts of stereochemistry.

Pharmacology and Medicinal chemistry: Types of receptors, drug-receptor interaction including signal transduction, mechanism, drug action and adverse drug reactions. General pathways of drug metabolism, basic concepts and application of prodrug design. Mechanism of

action, structure activity relationship and pharmacology of: anticancer, anti-epileptic, antiparkinson, sedatives, hypnotics, NSAIDs, ANS and CVS drugs.

Spectroscopic techniques: Introduction, instrumentation, basic principle, interpretation of spectra and applications of UV-visible spectroscopy, Infra-red spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy

and Mass spectrometery in pharmacy.

Chromatographic techniques: Introduction, instrumentation, basic principle and applications of

paper chromatography, thin layer chromatography, ion exchange chromatography, column chromatography, affinity chromatography, GC, HPLC and HPTLC in pharmacy.

Preformulation studies: Introduction, goals of preformulation, physicochemical properties, criteria for selection of drug and excipients, compatibility tests.

Pharmaceutics and drug delivery systems: Drug absorption, distribution, biotransformation

and excretion, strategies and approaches for designing drug delivery systems, sustained and controlled drug delivery systems.

Quality assurance: Concept of total quality management, requirements of GMP, GLP, GCP, regulatory requirements of drugs and pharmaceuticals.

Pharmacogostical studies: General methods of extraction, isolation, purification and preliminary phytochemical screening methods. Factors affecting cultivation, collection, processing and storage of crude drugs. Pharmacognostic study of drugs under glycosides and alkaloids. Organoleptic evaluation of crude drugs.








Micro Economics:

Demand Analysis: Marshallian, Hicksian and Revealed Preference Approaches. Theory of Production and Cost. Types of Production Functions: Linear Homogenous ,Cobb Douglas, CES, Fixed  Coefficient Production Functions. Price  and Output Determination under Various Market Structures. Factor Pricing. Elements of General Equilibrium and Welfare Economics.

Macro Economics:

National Income Accounting. Classical and Keynesian Theories of Income and Employment.Consumption Hypothesis:Absolute Income Hypothesis,Relative Income Hypothesis,Life Cycle Hypothesis,Permanent Income Hypothesis. Theories of Money and Prices. Theories of Trade Cycles. IS-LM Model. Effectiveness of Monetary and Fiscal Policies. Rational Expectations and New Classical Economics. New Keynesian Economics.

International Economics:

Theories of Absolute and Comparative Cost Advantage. Factor Endowment and H.O. Theory.Factor Price Equalisation.Leontiff Paradox. Heberler's Opportunity Cost Theory. Mill's Reciprocal   Demand Theory.Terms of Trade. Balance of Payment Disequilibrium: Causes and Adjustments. Theories of Exchange Rate Determination.Tariff and Non Tariff Barriers. Theories of Economic Integration.

Public Economics:

Economic Functions of Modern Government. Fiscal Policy- Objectives and Instruments. Theories of Incidence of Taxation. Justice in Taxation: Benefit and Ability to pay Approaches. Theories of Public Expenditure. Public Borrowings: Sources, Burden and Redemption. Salient Features of Indian Tax System. Fiscal Federalism: Principles and Constitutional Provisions in India.

Money, Banking and Financial Markets

Demand for Money: Classical, Keynesian, Baumol, Tobin and Friedman's Approaches.

Supply of Money: Measures and Determination. Multiplier Approach.Monetary Policy- Goals, Instruments. Monetary Policy in Open Economy: IS-LM-BP Model. Commercial and Central Banking in India. Structure of Financial Markets in India - Money and Capital Markets.


Development Economics

Economic Growth and Development: Measurement and Factors affecting Growth. Theories and Models of Economic Growth: Theory of Big Push, Theories of Balanced and Unbalanced Growth. Lewis Model of Unlimited Supply of Labour. Harrod Domar and Solow Models of Economic Growth.  Theory of Circular Causation . Theory of Dualism. Linear Stage Theory.  Trade Theory and Economic Development: Prebisch Singer Hypothesis and Dual Gap Model.

Planning- Need, Types and Limitations. Alternative investment Criteria. Cost Benefit Analysis and  Shadow Prices. Environmental Economics: Relationship between Environment and Development. Externalities, Environmental Degradation and Market Failure. The Conncept of Sustainable Development.

Indian Economy

Salient Features of Indian Economy. National Income and Composition .Demographic Profile. Problems of Poverty, Unemployment, Inequality and Inflation. BOP and Foreign Trade- Composition, Direction and Policies. Indian Agriculture: Role and Reforms. WTO and Indian Agriculture. Food Security in India. Indian Industries: Industrial Development and Pattern of Industrialization. Industrial Policy. MSMEs. Industrial Sickness.

Indian Planning: Objectives, Strategy and Achievements. New Economic Policy.

Quantitative Methods

Measures of Central Tendencies, Dispersion, Skewness and Kurtosis.Correlation, Regression and Association of Attributes, Application of Differential and Integral Calculus in Economics. Matrix Algebra and its Applications. Linear Programming. Game Theory. Elementary Theory of Probability. Binomial, Poisson and Normal Distributions. Testing of Hypothesis - Z, t, F and Chi Square Tests. Index numbers and Time series.



­­­ History

Syllabus -BRET (Banasthali Research Entrance Test)-


Sabha and Samiti                                                                                   Khilafat 

Varnasrama                                                                                                           Iqta   

Purusharthas                                                                                                        Chalisha

Rina and Yajna                                                                                                      Sijda

Karma and Rebirth                                                                                               Paibos

Saptanga                                                                                                                Watan

Atupa/Chaitya/vihar/MAthas                                                                             Jizyah

Bodhisattava /Trithankara                                                                  Sulah-I-Kul

Alvars /Nayanars                                                                                  Mahzar

Sreni /Guild/Nigam                                                                                              Din-i-ilahi

Nagara /Dravida/Vesara                                                                                      Diwan-i-Arz

Vishti                                                                                                                      Khalsa

Hiranya                                                                                                  Jakat

Bali                                                                                                                          Khams

Niyoga                                                                                                                    kharaj

Syadwad                                                                                                                Tanka

Panchmahavrata                                                                                  Dar-Ul-Islam

Samskaras                                                                                                              Diwan-i-Kohi

Jagir                                                                                                                        Jharokha Darshan

Mansab                                                                                                  Tuladan

Chauth                                                                                                                   Dahsala System


Sangam Age


Drain of Wealth

Downward Filtration Theory

Cornwallis Code



Doctrine of Laps








Green Revolution

Panch Sheel


Syllabus for ‘BRET'

Ancient Indian History-

-Survey of the sources -Archaeological, Literary sources and foreign accounts

-Harappan Civilization

-Vedic Age

- Jainism and Buddhism

-Ashoka's   Dhamma ,Mauryan Administration

-Samudra Gupta's conquests, Chandragupta II


-Rajput Age

Medieval Indian history-

-Medieval sources

-Muslims invasions

-Iltutmish,Allauddin Khaljis,Mohammad-bin-Tughlaq,Theories of kingship-balbans and Afgans

-Babur and Humayun, Religious Policy of Akbar and Aurangzeb Mughal Rajput relations

-Sher Shah's reforms, Mughal administration, Mansabdari and Jagirdari

-Industries and Trade and Commerce in medieval period

-Sufis and Bhakti culture

-Indo-Islamic Architecture, Painting, music and Literature

-Shivaji and Maratha Administration

Modern Indian History-

-Advent of European in India

-Wars under Warren Hastings (1772-1785), Cornwallis (1786-1793), Expansion under Lord Wellesley (1798-1805), Dalhousie and the policy of Annexation (1848-1856)

-Economic policies of The British Empire in India (1757-1857)

i. Commercial Policy ii. Drain of Wealth iii. Development of Means of Transport and Communication

iv. Land Revenue Policy

-Spread of Modern Education

-Social Reform movements

 -Revolt of 1857

-The Nationalist Movement 1858-1905

-Indian National Congress

-The Government of India Acts

-Gandhi's Role in National Movement

-Revolutionary Movement

-Partition of India

Rajasthan History and Culture-

-Main sources of the History of Rajasthan

-Maharana Pratap

-Treaties with the East India Company

-Rajasthan In 1857

-Peasant,Tribal and Prajamandal Movements

-Formation of the state of Rajasthan

-Rajput Forts and Palaces

World History-



-Industrial Revolution

-Revolutions-a. Glorious revolution of England (1688)

                           b. American war of Independence (1775)

                           c. French Revolution (1789)

                         d. Russian Revolution (1917)

                         e. Chinese Revolution (1949)

-Unification of Italy and Germany (1870)

-Scramble of Africa

-Modernization of Japan

-World Wars

-Mussolini and Hitler

-United Nations Organization (U.N.O)              



Public Administration


1. Theory of Public Administration

  • Public Administration - Meaning, Nature and Scope, Public and Private Administration, New Public Administration, New Public Management.
  • Administrative Thinkers - Kautilya, Wood row Wilson, Click and Berwick, Max Weber, F. W. Taylor, Henri Fayol, M. P. Follet, Elton Mayo, C.I. Barnard, Herbert Simon, D. H. McGregor, Abraham Maslow, Herzberg, Chris Argyris and Fred Riggs.
  • Theories - Classical, Human Relations, Bureaucratic, Public Choice and Principal Agent relationship.
  • Approaches to the study of Public Administration - Scientific Management, Behavioural Systems, Structural - Functional, Decision-making, Public Policy and Marxian.
  • Organisation - Bases of Organisation, Formal and Informal, Principles of Organisation - Hierarchy, Span of Control, Unity of Command, Delegation, Decentralisation and Coordination; Line - Staff Agencies.
  • Leadership, Motivation and Communication.

2. Comparative Public Administration

  • Comparative Public Administration - Nature and Scope.
  • Theories and Models of Comparative Public Administration - Contributions of Fred Riggs, Montgomery and Ferrel Heady.
  • A Comparative Study of the Administration, Institutions and Processes in U.K., U.S.A., and India.
  • Various Control Mechanisms over Administration in U.K. U.S.A. and India.
  • Citizen and Administration - Machinery for redressal of citizen's grievances in U.K., U.S.A. and India.

3. Development Administration

  • Development Administration - Meaning, Nature and Scope, Concept of Development Administration; Development Administration and Traditional Administration; Characteristics of Administration in Developed and Developing Countries.
  • Public and Private Sectors and their Administration.
  • Planning - Projects and Plan Formulation, Plan Implementation and Evaluation.
  • Bureaucracy and Development Administration - Role of Bureaucracy in Plan Formulation and its Implementation.
  • Development Administration - Interactions among Bureaucrats, Politicians, Technocrats, Social Scientists, Educationists and Journalists. People's Participation in Development.
  • International Aid and Technical Assistance programs - IMF, IBRD, WTO.

4. Indian Administration

  • Administrative Legacies at the time of Independence - Civil Services; District and Revenue Administration.
  • Organisation of Government at the Central Level - Organisation of Secretariat, Ministries and Departments, Cabinet Secretariat, P.M.O.
  • Organisation of Government at the State Level - Secretariat, Role of Chief Secretary, Organisation of Ministries, Departments and Directorates.
  • Personnel Administration - Classification of Services, Recruitment, Recruitment Agencies - U.P.S.C. and State Public Service Commissions, Training, Promotion, Discipline, Morale, Staff Associations, Employer - Employee Relations.
  • Financial Administration - Budget, Enactment of Budget, Finance Ministry and its Role, Audit and Accounts, Comptroller and Auditor - General.
  • Plans - Five - Year Plans, Formulation of Plans, Planning Commission, National Development Council, Plan Implementation.
  • Centre State Relations - Legislative, Administrative and Financial, Finance Commission.
  • Control over Administration - Legislative, Executive and Judicial Control, Transparency, Accountability and Administrative Responsiveness.
  • District Administration - Organisation of District Administration, Role of District Collector in Development, Local Government - Rural and Urban, Panchayati Raj Institutions and their Role in Development.
  • Citizen and Administration - Lokpal and Lokayukta.
  • Delegated Legislation and Administrative Adjudication.
  • Administrative Reforms in India since Independence.

5. Social and Economic Administration

  • Meaning, Nature and Scope of Social Welfare and Social Justice.
  • Central Social Welfare Board and State Social Welfare Boards.
  • Major Social Sectors - Health and Education.
  • Industrial Policy Resolutions and Growth of Public Sector in India.
  • Public Sector - Features, Problems of Management, Accountability and Autonomy.
  • New Economic Policy - Liberalisation, Privatisation and Globalisation.

6. Local Governments - Rural and Urban

  • Meaning, Nature and Scope of Local Governments.
  • Major Features and Structure of Local Government in U.K., U.S.A., France and India.
  • 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments in India.
  • Functions and Role of Local Governments in India.
  • State - Local Relations in India.




Political Science


            The pre Ph.D. Course is divided in to two parts/papers Part-I/Paper-I deals basically with Research, Teaching aptitude, Reasoning, ICT and General Awareness.

The Part-II/Paper-II deals with the discipline of Political Science containing all major aspects of the discipline.

(The scheme of examination would be common for all Social Science Faculty students aspiring for Ph.D. in Banasthali Vidyapith)

Paper- I

Aptitude Test

         I.            Teaching Aptitude

Ø  Teaching : Nature, objectives, characteristics and basic requirements;

Ø  Learner's characteristics;

Ø  Factors affecting teaching;

Ø  Methods of teaching;

Ø  Teaching aids;

Ø  Evaluation systems.

      II.            Research Aptitude

Ø  Research : Meaning, Characteristics and types;

Ø  Steps of research;

Ø  Methods of research;

Ø  Research Ethics;

Ø  Paper, Article, Workshop, Seminar, Conference and Symposium;

Ø  Thesis Writing : its characteristics and format.

   III.            Reading Comprehension

Ø  A passage to be se with questions to be answered.

    IV.            Communication

Ø  Communication : Nature, characteristics, types, barriers and effective classroom communication.

       V.            Reasoning (Including Mathematical)

Ø  Number series; letter series; codes;

Ø  Relationships; classification.

    VI.            Logical Reasoning

Ø  Understanding the structure of arguments;

Ø  Evaluating and distinguishing deductive and inductive reasoning;

Ø  Verbal analogies : Word analogy - Applied analogy;

Ø  Verbal classification;

Ø  Reasoning Logical Diagrams : Simple diagrammatic relationship, multi-diagrammatic relationship;

Ø  Venn diagram; Analytical reasoning.

 VII.            Data Interpretation

Ø  Sources, acquisition and interpretation of data;

Ø  Quantitative and qualitative data;

Ø  Graphical representation and mapping of data.

VIII.            Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

Ø  ICT : meaning, advantages, disadvantages and uses;

Ø  General abbreviations and terminology;

Ø  Basics of internet and e-mailing

    IX.            General Knowledge and Environment

Ø  General awareness about surroundings

Ø  People and environment interaction;

Ø  Sources of pollution;

Ø  Pollutants and heir impact on human life, exploitation of natural and energy resources;

Ø  Natural hazards and mitigation.

       X.            Higher Education System : Governance, Polity And Administration

Ø  Structure of the institution for higher and research in India; Formal and distance

Ø  Education, professional/technical and general education; value education : governance,

Ø  Polity and administration; concept, intuitions and their interactions.


Paper II

Political Science

1.      Political  Thought (Western and Indian) and Political Ideologies

  • Plato and Aristotle.
  • St. Augustine and Thomas Aquinas
  • Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau.
  • Bentham, J. S. Mill, Hegel, Green, Marx and Laski.
  • Lenin, Mao, Gramsci.
  • Rawls, Nozick and McIntyre.
  • Manu, Kautilya,
  • Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Swami Vivekanand, Dayanand Sarswati
  • Gokhle and Tilak
  • Gandhi, Nehru, M. N. Roy. Ambedkar, Aurobindo Ghosh, Jai Prakash,
  • Utilitarianism, Pluralism, Liberalism, Idealism, Socialism, Anarchism

2.      Political Theory and Comparative Politics

  • Political Theory : Meaning Nature, Role and limitations. Traditional and Modern Perspective. Behaviouralism, Post Behaviouralism, Decline and revival of Political Theory.
  • Approaches: Systems Approach, Structural Functional, Marxist, Group Theory, Decision-Making, Communication Theory, Lasswell's Distributive Analysis.
  • Concepts: Sovereignty, Power, Authority, Legitimacy, Law, Liberty, Equality, Justice, Rights, Citizenship, , Elite, Gender, Multiculturalism, Environmentalism
  • Evolution and Development of comparative Politics as a discipline; nature and scope.
  • Constitutionalism: Concepts, Problems and Limitations, State in 21st Century.
  • Democracy and Dictatorship
  • Forms of Government: Unitary - Federal, Parliamentary and Presidential.
  • Organs of Government: Executive, Legislature, Judiciary - their Interrelationship in comparative perspective.
  • Party Systems, Pressure Groups and Electoral Systems.
  • Political Development, Dependency: Development and Under Development, Political Modernization, Political Culture, Political Socialization and Political Participation


3.      Indian Government and Politics

  • National Movement, Constitutional Developments and the Making of Indian Constitution.
  • Ideological Bases of the Indian Constitution, Preamble, Fundamental rights and Duties and Directive Principles.
  • Constitution as Instrument of Socio - Economic Change, Constitutional Amendments and Review
  • Structure and process - I : President, Prime Minister, Council of Ministers, Working of he parliamentary System.
  • Structure and process - II : Governor, Chief Minister, Council of Ministers, State Legislature.
  • Panchayati Raj Institutions: Rural and Urban, their working.
  • Federalism: Theory and practice in India; Demands of Autonomy and Separatist Movements; Emerging trends in Centre - State Relations.
  • Judiciary: Supreme Court, High Courts, Judicial Review, Judicial Activism including Public Interest Litigation cases, Judicial Reforms.
  • Party Systemand Polotical Parties and, Pressure Groups, Public Opinion, Media; Subaltern and Peasant Movements.
  • Elections, Electoral Behaviour, Election Commission and Electoral Reforms.
  • Issues of Indian Democracy : Caste and Reservation, Communalism, Lingualism, Corruption, Criminalization of Politics, Terrorism, Gender, Poverty alleviation Programmes and Dynastic Politics.

4.      Public Administration

  • Development of Public Administration as a discipline; Approaches to the study of Public Administration Decision - making, Ecological and Systems; Development Administration.
  • Theories of Organization
  • Principles of Organization : Line and staff, unity of command, hierarchy, span of control, centralization and decentralization, Types of organization - formal and informal; Forms of organization; department, public corporation and board.
  • Chief Executive : Types, functions and roles.
  • Personnel Administration : Recruitment, Training, Promotion, Discipline, Morale; employee - Employer Relations.
  • Bureaucracy : Theories, Types and Roles; Max Weber and his critics. Civil servant - Minister relationship.
  • Leadership, its role in decision - Making ; Communication.
  • Financial Administration: Budget, Audit, control over Finance with special reference to India.
  • Good Governance; Problems of Administrative Corruption; Transparency and Accountability; Right to Information.
  • Grievance Redressal Institutions: Ombudsman, Lokpal and Lokayukta.

5.      International Relations

  • Contending Theories and Approaches to the study of International Relations: Idealist, Realist, Systems, Game, Communication and Decision - Making.
  • Power, Interest and Ideology in International Relations; Elements of Power : Acquisition, use and limitation of power, Perception, Formulation and promotion of National Interest, Meaning, Role and Relevance of Ideology in International Relations.
  • Management of National Power: Balance of Power, Collective Security to Cooperative Security and Changing concept of National Security and Challenges to Nation State, Disarmament.
  • Arms and Wars: Nature, Causes and types of wars / conflicts including ethnic disputes; conventional, Nuclear / Bio - chemical wars; deterrence, Arms Race, Arms Control and Disarmament.
  • Peaceful Settlement of Disputes, Conflict Resolution, Diplomacy, World - order and Peace Studies.
  • Cold War, Alliances, Non - Alignment, End of Cold war and Post cold War Era, Uni Polarity, Multi Polarity, Globalization and Liberalization.
  • Rights and Duties of states in international law, intervention, Treaty law, prevention and abolition of war.
  • Political Economy of International Relations; New International Economic Order, North - South Dialogue, South - South Cooperation, WTO, Neo - Colonialism and Dependency.
  • Regionalism, Regional and Sub-Regional organizations such as: SAARC, ASEAN, OPEC, OAS, BRICS, EU and NATO
  • United Nations: Aims, Objectives, Structure and Evaluation of the working of UN; peace and Development perspectives; Charter Revision; Power-Struggle and Diplomacy within UN, Financing and Peace-Keeping operations.
  • India's Role in International affairs: India's relations with its neighbors, wars, security concerns and pacts, Mediatory Role, distinguishing features of Indian Foreign Policy and Diplomacy.
  • Foreign Policies of U.S.A., U.K., France, Russia, China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan, Maldives, Afghanistan
  • Major Issues: Human Rights, Gender Equality, Protection of Environment, Terrorism.




            The pre Ph.D. Course is divided in to two parts/papers Part-I/Paper-I deals basically with Research, Teaching aptitude, Reasoning, ICT and General Awareness.

The Part-II/Paper-II deals with the discipline of Psychology containing all major aspects of the discipline.

(The scheme of examination would be common for all Social Science Faculty students aspiring for Ph.D. in Banasthali Vidyapith)

Paper- I

Aptitude Test

    XI.            Teaching Aptitude

Ø  Teaching : Nature, objectives, characteristics and basic requirements;

Ø  Learner's characteristics;

Ø  Factors affecting teaching;

Ø  Methods of teaching;

Ø  Teaching aids;

Ø  Evaluation systems.

 XII.            Research Aptitude

Ø  Research : Meaning, Characteristics and types;

Ø  Steps of research;

Ø  Methods of research;

Ø  Research Ethics;

Ø  Paper, Article, Workshop, Seminar, Conference and Symposium;

Ø  Thesis Writing : its characteristics and format.

XIII.            Reading Comprehension

Ø  A passage to be se with questions to be answered.

XIV.            Communication

Ø  Communication : Nature, characteristics, types, barriers and effective classroom communication.

 XV.            Reasoning (Including Mathematical)

Ø  Number series; letter series; codes;

Ø  Relationships; classification.

XVI.            Logical Reasoning

Ø  Understanding the structure of arguments;

Ø  Evaluating and distinguishing deductive and inductive reasoning;

Ø  Verbal analogies : Word analogy - Applied analogy;

Ø  Verbal classification;

Ø  Reasoning Logical Diagrams : Simple diagrammatic relationship, multi-diagrammatic relationship;

Ø  Venn diagram; Analytical reasoning.

XVII.            Data Interpretation

Ø  Sources, acquisition and interpretation of data;

Ø  Quantitative and qualitative data;

Ø  Graphical representation and mapping of data.

XVIII.            Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

Ø  ICT : meaning, advantages, disadvantages and uses;

Ø  General abbreviations and terminology;

Ø  Basics of internet and e-mailing

XIX.            General Knowledge and Environment

Ø  General awareness about surroundings

Ø  People and environment interaction;

Ø  Sources of pollution;

Ø  Pollutants and heir impact on human life, exploitation of natural and energy resources;

Ø  Natural hazards and mitigation.

 XX.            Higher Education System : Governance, Polity And Administration

Ø  Structure of the institution for higher and research in India; Formal and distance

Ø  Education, professional/technical and general education; value education : governance,

Ø  Polity and administration; concept, intuitions and their interactions.


Paper II


1.      Perceptual Processes

Approaches to the Study of Perception: Gestalt and physiological approaches Perceptual Organization: Gestalt, Figure and Ground, Laws of Organization Perceptual Constancy: Size, Shape and Brightness, Illusion; Perception of Depth and Movements.

Role of Motivation and learning in perception.


2.      Learning process

Classical conditioning: Procedure, Phenomena and related issues

Instrumental learning: Phenomena, Paradigms and theoretical issues

Reinforcement: Basic variables and schedules

Verbal learning: Methods and materials. Organizational processes.


3.      Memory and forgetting

Memory processes: Encoding, Storage, Retrieval

Stages of memory: Sensory memory, Short-term Memory (STM) and Long-term Memory (LTM)

Episodic and Semantic memory

Theories for forgetting: Interference, decay, retrieval.


4.      Thinking and Problem Solving

Theories of thought processes: Associationism, Gestalt, Information processing

Concept formation: Rules and strategies

Reasoning: Deductive and inductive

Problem-solving: Type and strategies

Role of concepts in thinking


5.      Motivation and Emotion

Basic motivational concepts: Instincts, needs, drives, incentives, motivational cycle

Approaches to the study of motivation: Psychoanalytical, ethological, S-R Cognitive, Humanistic

Biological Motives: Hunger, thirst, Sleep and sex

Social motives: Achievement, affiliation, approval

Exploratory behaviour and curiosity

Physiological correlates of emotions

Theories of emotions: James-Lange, Canon-Bard, Schachter and Singer

Conflicts: Sources and types


6.      Human Ability

Intelligence: Biological, Social, Eco-cultural determinants

Theories of intelligence: Spearman, Thurston, Guilford

Individual and group differences: Extent and causes

Measurement of human abilities


7.      Personality

Determinants of personality: Biological and socio-cultural

Approaches to the study of personality: Psychoanalytic, neo-freudian, social learning, trait and type, cognitive

Personality assessment: Psychometric and projective tests

Self-concept: Origin and development


8.      Research Methodology

Research problems, hypothesis, variables and their operationalization

Types of psychological research

Methods of psychological research: Experimental, Quasi-experimental, case studies, field studies and cross-cultural studies.

Methods of data collection: Observation, interview, questionnaire, tests and scales.

Non-parametric test


9.      Measurement and testing

Test construction: Item writing, item analysis

Test standardization: Reliability, validity and norms

Types of tests: Intelligence, aptitude, personality-characteristics and important examples

Attitude scales and interest inventories

Educational measurement and evaluation


10.  Biological Basis of Behaviour

Receptors, effectors and adjuster mechanisms

Neural impulse: Origin, conduction and measurements

Sensory system: Vision and Audition

Human nervous system: Structure and functions.




Part-1 Research Aptitude

Logical Reasoning. General Awareness, Coding, Decoding, Verbal/Non-Verbal Reasoning. Mental Ability, Blood Relation, Number  Problem, Numerical computation, English grammar, sentence completion, verbal analogies, word groups, instructions, data

interpretation. critical reasoning and verbal deduction.

Part-2.  Research Methodology -

Scientific   Research, Hypothesis, Variable, Research Design, Sampling, Primary and Secondary Data

Qualitative and Quantitative Research: Tools of Data Collection: Observation, Interview, Questionnaire, Schedule, Case Study, Oral History, Content Analysis

Data Analysis- Coding, Classification and Tabulation of Data

 Mean, Mode, Median, Co-relation

Part-3.  Basics of Sociology

Sociology: Meaning and Subjective Matter, Sociological Perspective

Concepts:  Society, Community, Culture, Association, Group, Group Dynamics,

Institution: Family, Marriage, Education, Religion, Polity, Economy

 Status and Role

Social Stratification: Caste, Class, Gender

Socialization and Social Control: Meaning, Agencies, Theories

Social Change: Meaning, Factors and Theories

Concept of Development

Part-4. Sociological Thinkers

Comte: Positivism, Law of Three Stages

Spencer: Social Darwinism, Organic Theory of Evolution

Marx:  Historical Materialism, Dialectical Materialism, Class Conflict

Durkheim:  Social Fact, Division of Labour, Religion, Suicide

Weber:  Ideal Type, Social Action, Religion, Authority

Part-5. Sociological Approaches:

Evolutionary Approach, Structural Functionalism, Conflict Approach,

Ethnomethodology, Phenomenology, Symbolic Interactionism

Modern and Post Modern Approach

Part-6. Indian Society:

Unity in Diversity, Rural- Urban Society, Caste, Kinship, Marriage and Family

Processes of Social Change: Sanskritization, Westernization, Modernization, Industrialization, Globalization.



Part-1 Research Aptitude-

Logical Reasoning. General Awareness, Coding, Decoding, Verbal/Non-Verbal Reasoning. Mental Ability, Blood Relation, Number  Problem, Numerical computation, English grammar, sentence completion, verbal analogies, word groups, instructions, data

interpretation. critical reasoning and verbal deduction.

Part-1 Research Methodology -

Scientific   Research, Hypothesis, Variable, Research Design, Sampling, Primary and Secondary Data

Qualitative and Quantitative Research: Tools of Data Collection: Observation, Interview, Questionnaire, Schedule, Case Study, Oral History, Content Analysis

Data Analysis- Coding, Classification and Tabulation of Data

 Mean, Mode, Median, Co-relation

Part-3   Social Work

Meaning & Concept of Social Work profession. Social Work reform. Movements. Social work profession and Human Rights. Social Work practice Skills & Techniques.

Philosophy and Principles of Social Work and their application.

Approaches of Social Work Practice.

Meaning & characteristics of Society, Community and its types, Social Group and Social  Institution. Community Development programmes.

Social problem: Poverty, Population, Unemployment, Under development.

Political System Institution in India: Fundamental Rights and Directive Principle of State Policies, Planning Commission of India.

Role of Social Workers in identifying social problems.

Methods of Social Work: Primary and Secondary.

Human Behaviour. Personality, Motivation, Socialisation.

Human growth and development in the lifespan of Individual.

Social Policy. Programmes and Project Management. Welfare Administration.

Concept of Social justice, social security, social Assistance. Social development.

Role of Social Worker in various settings. (Industries, Rural Reconstruction, Social Work profession)



Mass Communication


(1)             Communication: Theory & Practice

(2)             Media Laws & Ethics

(3)             Print Media : News Reporting & writing

(4)             Print Media : Editing & Layout Design

(5)             Radio & Television Journalism

(6)             New Media Journalism

(7)             History of Media & Press Laws

(8)             Public Relations & Corporate Communication

(9)             Advertizing

(10)           Film Studies/Film Appreciation

(11)           Communication Research

(12)           Development Communication

(13)           Sports Reporting & Journalism

(14)           Travel & Tourism Journalism

(15)           Health Communication

(16)           Law, Order & Crime Journalism

(17)           Environment Journalism

(18)           Principles & Ethics of Journalism

(19)           Science & Technical Communication

(20)           Agriculture Journalism    





Annexure - 1.1

Syllabi for PhD Entrance Examination in Women Studies


Part-1 Research Aptitude:-

Logical Reasoning. General Awareness, Coding, Decoding, Verbal/Non-Verbal Reasoning. Mental Ability, Blood Relation, Number  Problem, Numerical computation, English grammar, sentence completion, verbal analogies, word groups, instructions, data

interpretation. critical reasoning and verbal deduction.

Part-1 Research Methodology :-

Scientific   Research, Hypothesis, Variable, Research Design, Sampling, Primary and Secondary Data

Qualitative and Quantitative Research: Tools of Data Collection: Observation, Interview, Questionnaire, Schedule, Case Study, Oral History, Content Analysis

Data Analysis- Coding, Classification and Tabulation of Data

 Mean, Mode, Median, Co-relation

Part-3  Women Studies :-

Concept and Ned for Women's Studies-Scope of Women's studies-Women's Studies as an Academic Discipline

Women's Movements-Pre-independent, Post Independent and Current women movements

Liberal feminism- Marxist feminism- Radical Feminism-gender, patriarchy, reproductive

Socialist feminism-

Indian women-Family, Caste, Class, Culture, religion

Women's education-gender bias in enrolment-Curriculum content-Dropouts

Trends in Women's education-Committees and Commissions on education

Adult literacy and Non-formal education for women's development

Concept of work-Productive and non-productive work-Use value and market value

Gender Division of labour -Mode of production -Women in organized and unorganized sector

Training, skills and income generation, Self help groups and -NGOs and women Development-National and International funding Agencies

New economic policy and its impact on women's employment- Globalization Structural Adjustment Programmes,

Information technology-Impact on Women's Development

Gender and health: Health status of women in India, Health and Population Policies and programmes-Maternal and child Health to reproductive and child health approaches, Issues of old age,

Changing role of women- Single parent-Motherhood-Widows


Gender and Development: State Policy and Programmes

Women Development approaches in Indian five year Plans


Women and Political participation,

Indian constitution and provision relating to women

Personnel laws Labour Laws-


Violence against women-Legal protection

Enforcement machinery-Police and Judiciary


Human rights as women's Rights

National committees and Commissions for Women-Government Organization for women and Child Development, International Convention for safeguarding women's rights

Women in Media: portrayal of women in mass Media (Cinema, TV, Print media) Indecent Representation of women Act. 1986-Impact of media on women




Question bank will consist of two parts

Part I: Aptitude Test

Part II: Geology

30% questions would be of general aptitude and 70% from core topics in Geology


Part I

Aptitude: Reasoning and General Science.


Part II

1.      Geotectonics and Structural Geology: Concept of dip and strike of beds. Clinometer compass and its uses. Folds: description and classification of folds. Causes of folding. Faults: Nomenclature, classification of faults and causes of faulting. Joints: geometric classification. Unconformity: its types and significance. Overlap and offlap. Outlier and inlier. Nappe. Introduction and tectonic framework of Earth crust. Convection currents and Wilson Cycle. Introduction to plate tectonics and types of plate boundaries. Tectonic features of extensional, compressional and strike-slip terrain. Continental drift theories. Concept of Sea floor spreading.  Palaeomagnetism. Hotspots and mantle plumes. Tectonic activity within Indian Plates. Himalayan Orogeny. Mechanical properties of rocks. Concept of stress and strain. Behavior of material under stress. Theory of rock failure. Elastic and Plastic behavior of rock. Brittle and Ductile deformation. Dynamics of Folding. Classification and Mechanism of Folding and Faulting. Recognition criteria of faulting. Beta and pi diagrams. Unconformities: types, formation and significance in stratigraphic correlation. Joints: classification, criteria for recognition and tectonic significance. Concept and types of Lineation, Foliations, Cleavages and their significance. Boudinage structures.

2.      Physical Geology and Plate Tectonics: Introduction to geology, its scope, sub disciplines and relationship with other branches of science. Earth in the solar system, origin, size, shape, mass, density, rotational and revolution parameters. Internal constitution of the Earth. Age of the Earth. Introduction to minerals, rocks and fossils. Origin of oceans, continents and mountains. Types of mountains. Geosynclines. Theory of Isostasy. Geological Time-scale. Major events in the Earth's history. Introduction to plate tectonics, types of plates and plate boundaries. Elementary ideas of continental drift and sea floor spreading. Introduction to craton, shields, trenches, mid-oceanic ridges and island arc. Earthquake: introduction and terminology, seismic waves, causes, magnitude, intensity and types of Earthquake, locating epicenter. Effects of Earthquakes and distribution of Earthquake belts. Seismic zones of India. Case studies of important Earthquakes of India. Volcano: introduction, terminology, types, volcanic products, causes & effects and distribution of important volcanic belts. Relationship of Earthquakes with volcanic belts. Impact craters, morphology and their formation stages.

3.      Mineralogy and Crystallography: Mineral: definition and chemical principles of minerals. Isomorphism and Polymorphism, Exsolution and Solid solution. Physical properties of mineral. Light: interaction of light and matter and polarization of light. Behaviour of isotropic and anisotropic minerals in polarized light. Refractive Index. Double refraction and birefringence. Sign of elongation. Interference figures. Extinction and its types. Relief and Pleochroism. Twinning. Accessory Plates.Silicates: structure and classification. A detailed study of the following important minerals with reference to structural formulae, crystal structure, chemistry, physical and optical properties and mode of occurence. Silicates: Olivine, Garnet, Melilite, Kyanite, Andalusite, Sillimanite, Beryl, Pyroxene, Amphibole, Serpentine, Mica, Kaolinite, Chlorite, Talc, Feldspar, Cordierite. Non-silicates: Calcite, Aragonite, Dolomite, Apatite, Monazite, Gypsum, Anhydrite, Barite, Spinel, Hematite, Rutile, Bauxite, Periclase. Crystal, definition. Elementary idea of crystal structure. Parts of crystal- face, edge, apex, solid angle and interfacial angle. Crystallographic axes and angles. Parameters and indices. Elements of crystal symmetry. Common crystal forms - dome, prism, pyramid and pinacoid. Introduction to different crystals systems.

4.      Ore Genesis, Economic and Fuel Geology: Ore deposits and ore minerals. Magmatic processes of mineralization. Prophyry, skarn and hydrothermal mineralization. Fluid inclusion studies. Mineralization associated with (a) ultramafic, mafic and acidic rocks (b) greenstone belts (c) submarine volcanism (d) komatites, anorthosites and kimberlites. Stratiform and stratabound ores. Occurrence and distribution of metalliferous deposits of India: iron, manganese, aluminium, chromium, gold, silver, nickel, molybdenum, lead, zinc, copper, tungsten. Indian deposits of non-metals: mica, asbestos, barytes, gypsum, graphite. Minerals used in different industries: fertilizer, paint, ceramic and cement industries. Definition, origin and types of coal. Mode of occurrences and structures in coal seam. Coal petrography. Stratigraphy of coal measures. Indian coal deposits. Industrial application of coal petrology. Coal bed methane- a new energy resource. Origin, composition, migration and entrapment of natural hydrocarbons. Properties of source and reservoir rocks. Porosity and permeability. Reservoir traps: structural, stratigraphic and combination traps. Geographical and geological distributions of onshore and offshore petroliferous basins of India.Mineralogy and geochemistry of radioactive minerals. Distribution of radioactive minerals in India. Radioactive waste management. Geological and geophysical methods of petroleum exploration.

5.      Igneous Petrology: Magma- its nature and composition. Generation of magma. Factors controlling evolution of magma. Influence of volatiles and role of oxygen fugacity in magmatic crystallizations. Phase equilibrium studies of binary and ternary systems and their relations to magma genesis and crystallization. Magmatism in different tectonic settings. Major and minor elements in the crust. Normative minerals. Variation diagrams and discrimination diagrams. Forms, textures and structures of igneous rocks. IUGS classification of Igneous rocks: Plutonic, Volcanic and Hypabyssal. Petrology and petrogenesis of major igneous rock types giving Indian examples of ultramafic, basaltic, granitic, ophiolite, carbonatite, lamprophyres and layered mafic intrusions.

6.      Sedimentary Petrology: Provenance and diagenesis of sediments. Sedimentary textures: definition, measurement and interpretation of grain size. Sedimentary structures. Palaeocurrent analysis. Trace fossils and stromatolites: classification and environment of deposition. Heavy mineral analysis. Field and laboratory techniques in sedimentology.  Genesis and classification of sedimentary rocks: Siliciclastic rocks - conglomerate, breccia, sandstone, siltstone, clay stone and shale. Carbonate rock - limestone, dolomite, marl, evaporite, phosphorite, chert. Definition and classification of sedimentary basins. Sedimentary basins of India. Purpose and scope of basin analysis. Plate Tectonics and sedimentation. Sedimentary environment and facies modelling for marine, non-marine and mixed sediments.

7.      Metamorphic Petrology: Metamorphism and metamorphic processes. Mineralogical phase rule of closed and open system and its application. Metamorphic Reactions. Reaction mechanisms and types. Evolution of facies concept, metamorphic facies series and concept of paired metamorphic belts. Metamorphic zones and Isograds. Metamorphic structures and textures. Replacement textures and reaction rims. Diagrammatic representation of mineral reactions and paragenesis: ACF, AKF, AFM diagrams. Progressive, regional and thermal metamorphism of pelitic, calcareous and basic igneous rocks. Charnockites. Experimental Petrology: methods and techniques, application of experimental petrology to anatexis and formation of granitic magmas. Geothermometer and Geobarometer. Pressure-Temperature-Time path models for metamorphism. Regional metamorphism in relation to the theory of Plate Tectonics. Ocean floor metamorphism.

8.      Geophysics and Exploration Methods: Introduction to Geophysics. Shape and size of Earth. Gravitational field of the Earth. Variation of gravity on the Earth. Principles of gravity methods and instruments used. Gravity field surveys. Corrections applied to gravity data: Bouguer anomaly, Regional and residual anomalies, Gravity anomaly, anomaly maps and their interpretation.Geomagnetic field of the Earth. Magnetic properties of rocks. Principles of magnetic methods. Instruments of magnetic surveying. Fluxgate magnetometer. Proton-precision magnetometer. Alkali vapour magnetometer. Aeromagnetic surveys.Electrical methods: basic principles and various types of electrode configuration. Electrical and resistivity surveying. Field procedures: profiling and sounding. Seismic methods: principles and instruments used. Seismic velocity and interpretation of seismic data. Seismic refraction and reflection method. Well logging applications in petroleum, groundwater and mineral exploration.

9.      Stratigraphy: History of stratigraphic nomenclature and the modern stratigraphic code. Stratigraphic classification. Sequence stratigraphy, magneto-stratigraphy and climate-stratigraphy. Geochronology. Graphic representation of stratigraphic data. Earth's climatic history.Early history of Earth. Nature and evolution of early crust. Evolution of granite, greenstone and grenulite belt. Proterozoic sedimentary basins of India: Cuddapah, Vindhyan and Bikaner-Nagaur basin.Stratigraphy of the Palaeozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic formations of India. Stratigraphy boundary problems in India: demarcation of Precambrian-Cambrian, Permian-Triassic, Cretaceous-Tertiary and Neogene-Quaternary boundaries in relation to mechanisms of extinction and evolution.

10.  Palaeontology: Introduction and scope of Palaeontology. Concepts of taphonomy and biostratinomy. Fossils: definition and mode of preservation of fossils (body and trace fossils). Index fossils. Incompleteness of fossils record. Principles of palaeoecology. Theories on origin of life. Principles of biogeography. Patterns and causes of Extinction. Concept and mechanism of speciation. Modes of preservation of fossils. Collection, preservation and preparation of fossils. Fossil record and geological time scale. Evolution of Man, Horse and Elephant. Siwalik vertebrate fauna and Gondwana flora. Trace fossils. Morphology, geological and geographical distribution of the following fossil groups: Phylum Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Echinodermata, Cnidaria (Corals), Arthropoda (Class Trilobita), Hemichordata (Class Graptolothina). Definition and scope of micro-palaeontology. Techniques in micro-palaeontology. Morphotaxonomy of Foraminifera, Ostracodes, Conodonts and Radiolaria. Importance of microfossils in stratigraphy, determination of palaeoclimatic environments and sea level changes in the geological past and the role of micro-palaeontology in oil exploration.

11.  Geochemistry and Isotope Geology: Introduction to Geochemistry: scope and history of Geochemistry. Origin of elements. Cosmic abundance of elements. Earth in relation to solar system and universe. Composition of Earth. Geochemical classification of elements. Principles of ionic substitutions in minerals. Definition and examples of transition elements, platinum group of elements, rare-earth elements, compatible elements, incompatible elements, high-field strength elements (HFSE), large ion lithophile elements (LILE).Trace elements: definition and trace element partitioning, factors governing values of partition coefficients (P,T, ionic size and charge, composition, crystal field effects). Application of trace elements in igneous rocks. Geochemistry of hydrosphere, biosphere and atmosphere. Geochemical cycles: Carbon, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphate and principles of geochemical prospecting. Meteorites: classification, mineralogy, chemical composition, origin, age and significance of meteorites.Introduction and physics of the nucleus. Radioactive decay. Law of radioactive decay. Principles of mass spectrometry. Radioactive decay scheme of Rb-Sr method, Sm-Nd method, K-Ar method, Ar-Ar method, U-Th-Pb method. Stable isotope geochemistry of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon and sulphur.


12.   Mining and Engineering Geology: Introduction: Definition, basic concepts, terminology, broad classification of mining methods. Geological factors considered for the selection of mining method viz.- Alluvial/Surface mining, Quarrying, Open-cast mining and Underground mining methods.Ore dressing and its importance, low grade ores and their beneficiation. Basic ore dressing operations viz. crushing, grinding, sizing, screening and classification. Concentration process, Magnetic and electrostatic separation, Gravity concentration, Froth Floatation, Amalgamation and Agglomeration. Engineering properties of rocks and physical characteristics of building stones, concretes and other aggregates. Geological and geotechnical investigations, types and problems of major civil engineering structures: dams and reservoirs, bridges, highways and tunnels. Mass movement with special emphasis on landslides and causes of hillslope instability. Seismic design of buildings.

13.  Remote sensing and GIS: Remote Sensing: definition, principle and scope. Electromagnetic radiation- types and sources, Black body radiation. Absorption bands and Atmospheric windows. Interaction of EM radiation with Earth: Reflectance - Absorption - Emittance and Transmittance. Remote Sensing Sensor: types and their resolution. Scanners, Platforms.  Active and passive systems. Types of Satellites. International Space missions: LANDSAT, SKYLAB, SPOT, SEASAT, IKONOS, OCEANSAT. Space research in India: Bhaskara and IRS series. Indian Planetary Missions.TIR remote sensing and its applications. Principles of microwave remote sensing and its applications. Radar interferometry. Multispectral and Hyperspectral remote sensing. Geographic positioning system (GPS): Introduction, definition and scope of GPS, advantages and uses of GPS in different fields. Fundamentals of digital image processing: Image rectification, Image enhancement and Image classification.Principles and application of geographic information system (GIS), introduction, definition and scope. Components of GIS (hardware and software requirement for GIS application). Maps: Maps and their different features/themes/layers, map projections-different types and their properties. Satellite Imageries: Raster and vector data and their relative merits, digitization, topology and their attributes, overlays and analysis. Database: definition and types of database. Advantages and disadvantages of database approach.


14.  Geomorphology: Introduction to Geomorphology, fundamental concepts, geomorphic agents and processes. Fluvial geomorphic cycles. Weathering: types and weathering products. Soil: factors, soil profile and classification. Mass wasting and landslides. Earthquakes and Volcanoes. Geomorphic models of landscape evolution. Erosional and depositional landforms: fluvial, glacial, aeolian, coastal and karst landscape. Geomorphic mapping, slope analysis, drainage patterns and morphometric analysis: stream ordering, bifurcation ratio, drainage density. Geomorphology of India-Peninsular, extra peninsular and Indo-Gangetic Plain. Application of geomorphology in mineral prospecting, civil engineering, hydrology and oil exploration.

15.  Environmental Geology and Hydrogeology: Fundamental concepts of environmental Geology. Natural hazards: landslides, floods, earthquakes, volcanoes and water logging. Environmental aspects of natural resource development: water resources, mineral resources and fossil fuels. Pollution, their sources and types. Pollution of rivers, lakes and groundwater. Problem of Arsenic and fluoride and remedial measures for their treatment. Waste disposal practices and management. Waste water treatment. Watershed management. Artificial recharge of groundwater. Rain water harvesting. Groundwater: origin and age of groundwater. Hydrological cycle, Precipitation, Evapotranspiration and Infiltration. Vertical distribution of groundwater. Aquifers: Geologic formation as aquifers and types of aquifers. Saline water intrusion: Occurrence, sea water intrusion in coastal areas and control of saline water intrusion. Groundwater regimes in India. Groundwater exploration. Well hydraulics.



Constitutional Law of India:

  • Preamble
  • Fundamental Rights and Duties.
  • Directive Principles of State Policy.
  • Judiciary
  • Executive
  • Union State Legislative Relations.
  • Emergency Provisions
  • Amendment of the Constitution.
  • Writ Jurisdiction

2. Legal Theory:

  • Nature and Sources of Law.
  • Positivism, Natural. Law Theory, Sociological Jurisprudence.
  • Theories of Punishment.
  • Rights and Duties.
  • Concepts of Possession and Ownership.

3. Public International Law:

  • Nature of International Law and its relationship with Municipal Law.
  • Sources of International Law.
  • Recognition of States and Governments.
  • United Nations
  • Settlement of International Disputes.
  • Human Rights

4. Family Law:

  • Concepts in Family Law.
  • Sources of Family Law in India.
  • Marriage and Dissolution of Marriage.

5. Law of Contracts: General Principles

  • Essentials of a valid contract.
  • Offer, acceptance and consideration.
  • Capacity to Contract: Minor's contract.
  • Elements vitiating contract: Mistake, fraud, misrepresentation, public policy, coercion, undue influence, frustration of contract.
  • Remedies for breach of contract: Damages.

6. Law of Torts:

  • Foundation of Tortuous Liability.
  • General Defences to an action of Torty.
  • Vicarious Liability
  • Remoteness of Damages.
  • Contributory Negligence
  • Absolute and Strict Liability.


7. Law of Crimes: General Principles

  • Nature and Definition of Offence.
  • General Exceptions
  • Common Intention and Common Object.
  • Criminal Attempt, Conspiracy and Abetment.
  • Offences against Women.






Definition, objectives and importance of research.

Research: Meaning, characteristics and types; Steps of research; Methods of research; Research Ethics; Paper, article, workshop, seminar, conference and symposium.

Research problem, reviews, variables, hypotheses, sampling and sampling methods, research design.

Primary and secondary data, methods of data collection.

Formal style of writing: Thesis and research papers writing: their characteristics and format, bibliography and references.

Data analysis: tabular and graphical presentation of data.

Application of Computer in research.

Measures of central tendency, dispersion, probability, parametric and non parametric test, tests of significance, significance of difference between means - t- test, Z- test, analysis of variance, Correlation, Chi - square test.



Unit - I (General Environmental Science)


Definition, principles and scope of Environmental Science.

Earth, Man and Environment. Ecosystems, Pathways in Ecosystems.

Physico-chemical and Biological factors in the Environment.

Geographical classification and zones.

Structure and composition of atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. Scale of Meteorology, pressure, temperature, precipitation, humidity, radiation and wind. Atmospheric stability, inversions and mixing heights, windroses.

Natural resources, conservation and sustainable development.


Unit - II (Environmental Chemistry)


Stochiometry, Gibb's energy, Chemical potential, chemical equilibria, acid base reactions, solubility product, solubility of gases in water, the carbonate system, unsaturated and saturated hydrocarbons, radionuclides.

Chemical composition of Air: Classification of elements, chemical speciation. Particles, ions and radicals in the atmosphere. Chemical processes for formation of inorganic and organic particulate matter. Thermochemical and photochemical reactions in the atmosphere. Oxygen and ozone chemistry, Chemistry of air pollutants, Photochemical smog.

Water Chemistry: Chemistry of water, concept of DO, BOD, COD, sedimentation, coagulation, filtration, Redox potential.

Soil Chemistry: Inorganic and organic components of soil, Nitrogen pathways and NPK in soils.

Toxic Chemicals in the environment. Biochemical aspects of Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, Mercury, Carbon Monoxide and PAN Pesticides, Insecticides, MIC, carcinogens in the air.

Hydrocarbons: Chemistry of hydrocarbon decay, environmental effects, effects on macro and micro organisms. Surfactants: Cationic, anionic and nonionic detergents, modified detergents.

Pesticides: Classification, degradation, analysis, pollution due to pesticides and DDT problems.

Synthetic Polymers: Microbial decomposition, polymer decay, ecological and consideration, Photosensitize additives.

Pollutant & their toxicology: Heavy metals and trace elements. agrochemicals (Pesticides, herbicides, rodenticides & fungicides, detergents) & particulate matter.

Principles of Analytical Methods: Colorimetry, Spectrophotometry, Chromatography, Gas Chromatography, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry, GLC, HPLC, Electrophoresis, X - ray fluorescence, X - ray diffraction, Flame photometry, Centrifuge.


Unit - III (Ecology)

Definition, Principles and scope of ecology, Human ecology and Human settlement, Evolution, Origin of life and speciation.


Structure and functions, Abiotic and Biotic components, energy flows, Food chains, Food web, Ecological pyramids, types and diversity.

Ecological Succession, Population, Community ecology and Parasitism, Prey - predator relationships.

Common flora and fauna in India:

Aquatic: Phytoplankton, Zooplankton and Macrophytes.

Terrestrial: Forests

Endangered and Threatened Species:

Biodiversity and its conservation: Definition, ‘Hotspot's of Biodiversity, Strategies for Biodiversity conservation. National Parks and Sanctuaries. Gene pool, Global climatic changes: Indicators and Theories

Microflora of Atmosphere: Air Sampling techniques. Identification of aeroallergens. Air - borne diseases and allergies.

Environmental Biotechnology: Fermentation Technology, Vermiculture technology, Biofertilizer technology. Phytoremediation for heavy metal pollution, Biosensor development to monitor pollution.


Unit - IV (Environmental Geosciences)


Geoscience: The earth systems and Biosphere: Conservation of matter in various geospheres - lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere. Energy budget of the earth. Earth's thermal environment and seasons. Ecosystems flow of energy and matter. Coexistence in communities-food webs., Earths'major ecosystems terrestrial and aquatic. General relationship between landscape, biomes and climate. Climates of India, Indian Monsoon, El Nino, Droughts. Tropical cyclones and Western Disturbances.

Earth's Processes and Geological Hazards: Earths processes; concept of residence, time and rates of natural cycles. Catastrophic geological hazards. Study of floods, landslides, earthquakes, volcanism and avalanche. Prediction and perception of the hazards and adjustments to hazardous activities.

Mineral Resources and Environment: Resources and Reserves, Minerals.and Population. Oceans as new areas for exploration of mineral resources. Ocean ore and recycling of resources. Environmental impact of exploitation, processing and smelting of minerals.

Water Resources and Environment: Global Water Balance. Ice sheets and fluctuations of sea levels. Origin and composition of seawater. Hydpological cycle. Factors influencing the surface water. Types of water. Resources of oceans. Ocean pollution by toxic wastes. Human use of surface and groundwaters. Groundwater pollution.

Landuse Planning: The landuse plan. Soil surveys in relation to landuse planning. Methods of site selection and evaluation.

Environmental Geochemistry: Concept of major, trace and REE. Classification of trace elements, Mobility of trace elements, Geochemical cycles. Biogeochemica! factors in environmental health. Human use, trace elements and health. Possible effects of imbalance of some trace elements.

Remote sensing: Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) - Properties, Interaction of EMR with the earth's surface and atmosphere. Principles of Remote sensing and its application of GIS in Environmental Management. GIS: Concept, Components and  Application of GIS. Remote sensing in mapping Land use / land cover classification and monitoring,


Unit - V (Energy and Environment)


Sun as source of energy; solar radiation and its spectral characteristics; Fossil fuels-classification, composition, physico - chemical characteristics and energy content of coal, petroleum and natural gas. Principles of generation of hydroelectric power, tidal, Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion, wind, geothermal energy; solar collectors, photovoltaics, solar ponds; nuclear energy - fission and fusion; magnetohydrodynamic power, bio-energy-energy from biomass and biogas, anaerobic digestion; energy use pattern in different parts of the world.

Environmental implication of energy use; CO2 emissions, global warming; air and thermal pollution; radioactive waste and radioactivity from nuclear reactors; impacts of large-scale exploitation of Solar, Wind, Hydro and Ocean energy.

Concept of energy, conventional & non-conventional energy sources. Fossil fuels, hydro, wind and nuclear power, geothermal, solar and bioenergy.

Energy flow in organisms, energy pathways & models, energy efficiencies, conservation of energy.


Unit - VI (Various components of Environment)


Air: Natural and anthropogenic sources of pollution. Primary and Secondary pollutants. Transport and diffusion of pollutants. Gas laws governing the behaviour of pollutants in the atmosphere. Methods of monitoring and control of air pollution SOz, NOx, CO, SPM. Effects of pollutants on human beings, plants, animals, materials and on climate. Acid Rain. Air Quality Standards. Vehicular pollution and urban air quality.

Water: Types, sources and consequences of water pollution. Physico - chemical and Bacteriological sampling and analysis of water quality. Standards, sewage and wastewater treatment and recycling, heavy metal pollution and its effect on human health.

Advanced waste water treatment, N-removal, P-removal, Advanced Biological Systems, Chemical oxidation, Removal of suspended solids, Dissolved solids, Indian standards for water and wastewater quality.

Soil: Physico - chemical as bacteriological sampling as analysis of soil quality. Soil Pollution Control. Industrial waste effluents and heavy metals, their interactions with soil components. Soil micro - organisms and their functions, degradation of different insecticides, fungicides and weedicides in soil. Different kinds of synthetic fertilizers  ( NP & K ) and their interactions with different components of soil. Soil Erosion, Formation and reclamation of Usar, Alkaline and Saline Soil, Waste lands and their reclamation, Desertification and its control.

Noise: Sources of noise pollution, measurement of noise and Indices, effect of meteorological parameters on noise propagation. Noise exposure levels and standards. Noise control and abatement measures. Impact of noise on human health.

Marine : Sources of marine pollution and control. Criteria employed for disposal of pollutants in marine system-coastal management.

Radioactive and Thermal Pollution.


Unit - VII (Environmental impact assessment and Management)


Introduction to environmental impact analysis.

Environmental impact Statement and Environmental Management Plan, stages of environmental impact assessment.

EIA guidelines 1994, Notification of Government of India.

Impact Assessment Methodologies.

Generalized approach to impact analysis.

Procedure for reviewing Environmental impact analysis and statement, Preparation of EIA plan for industrial project and functions, managing the EIA process and Monitoring. Guidelines for Environmental audit

Introduction to Environmental planning.

Base line information and predictions (land, water, atmosphere, energy, etc.).

Restoration and rehabilitation technologies.

Landuse policy for India.

Urban planning for India.

Rural planning and landuse pattern.

Concept and strategies of sustainable development.

Environmental priorities in India and sustainable development.


Unit - VIII (Solid waste Management and Environmental laws)


Solid waste Management: Sources and generation of solid wastes, their characterization, chemical composition and classification. Different methods of disposal and management of solid wastes (Hospital Wastes and Hazardous Wastes) Recycling of waste material. Waste minimization technologies. Waste disposal, recycling and power generation, Fly ash utilization.

Landfill Planning and designing, Act and rules for Solid waste management.

Hazardous waste, types of hazardous waste and its classification, Management of hazardous wastes.

Biomedical waste and its management

Radioactive waste and pollution - concept, sources, types and possible hazardous of radioactive substances, measurement of radiation intensity.


Environmental Laws:

Hazardous Wastes Management and Handling Rules, 1989, Resource Management, Environment protection-issues and problems, International and National efforts for Environment Protection, Provision of Constitution of India regarding Environment (Article 48A and 58A). Sustainable development: Polluter Pay Principle, Precautionary Principle, Preventive Principle, Intergenerational Equity, Key elements of some International Declarations (Stockholm, Rio declaration, Agenda 21, Kyoto protocol                 on Climate Change)

National environmental Tribunal Act1995

The national Environmental Appellate Authority Act 1997

Public Policy Strategies in Pollution Control, Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 amended 1991, Forest Conservation Act, 1980, Indian Forests Act ( Revised ) 1982, Air ( Prevention and Control of Pollution ) Act, 1981 as amended by Amendment Act, 1987 and Rule 1982, Motor Vehicle Act, 1988, The Water ( Prevention and Control of Pollution ) Act, 1974 as amended up to 1988 and Rules 1975, The Environment ( Protection ) Act, 1986 and Rules 1986.

Scheme of labelling of environmentally friendly products (Ecomark), Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991 and Rules 1991.


Unit - IX (Statistics and Environmental Models)


Basic elements and tools of statistical analysis; Probability, sampling, measurement and distribution of attributes; Distribution-Normal, t and x* Poisson and Binomial; Arithmetic, Geometric and Harmonic means; moments; matrices, simultaneous linear equations; tests of hypothesis and significance.w Elements in Research Methodology; Research Designs (CRD, RBD, LSD).

Introduction to environmental system analysis; Approaches to development of models; linear simple and multiple regression models, validation and forecasting. Models of population growth and interactions - Lotka - Volterra model, Leslie's matrix model, point source stream pollution model, box model, Gaussian plume model.


Unit - X (Environmental Education and Awareness)


Environmental Education and Awareness. Environmental Ethics and Global imperatives.

Global Environmental problems-ozone depletion, global warming and climatic change.

Current Environmental issue in India.

Context : Narmada Dam, Tehri Dam, Almetti Dam,

Water Crises-Conservation of water. Environmental Hazards.

Eutrophication and restoration of Indian lakes. Rain water harvesting. Wet lands conservation.

Epidemiological issues (e.g., Goitre, Fluorosis, Arsenic).

Disaster Management: Prevention, Preparedness and Mitigation

Planning and control of Natural Disaster

National and State level planning for Hazard Mitigation

Role of Natural Disaster Management Authority




School of Automation

Syllabus for Ph.D. Entrance


Basic Electronics

Energy bands, p-n junction diode, Characteristics and Parameters, Diode approximations, DC load line analysis, Half-wave rectifier, Two-diode Full-wave rectifier, Bridge rectifier, Capacitor filter circuit, Zener diode voltage regulators, Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) operation, BJT Voltages and Currents, BJT amplification, Common Base, Common Emitter and Common Collector Characteristics, DC Load line and Bias Point, Base Bias, Voltage divider Bias, Field Effect Transistors (FET), MOSFET amplifiers, LED.

Operational Amplifiers (OPAMP),Inverting and Non Inverting OPAMP circuits, OPAMP applications: voltage follower, adder, subtractor, integrator, differentiator.

Digital Electronics


Number systems, Binary codes, Combinatorial circuits: Boolean algebra, minimization of functions using Boolean identities and Karnaugh map, logic gates and their static CMOS implementations, arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers, decoders and Programmable Logic Devices, Programmable Logic Arrays (PLA), Programmable Array Logic (PAL); Sequential circuits: latches and flip‐flops, counters, shift‐registers and finite state machines; Data converters: sample and hold circuits, ADCs and DACs; Semiconductor memories: ROM, SRAM, DRAM


Control System


Mathematical modeling and representation of systems, Feedback principle, transfer function, Block diagrams and Signal flow graphs, Transient and Steady‐state analysis of linear time invariant systems, Routh-Hurwitz and Nyquist criteria, Bode plots, Root loci, Stability analysis, Lag, Lead and Lead-Lag compensators; mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic system components, synchro pair, servo and stepper motors, servo valves; on-off, P, P-I, P-I-D, cascade, feed-forward, and ratio controllers; State space model, State transition matrix.


Industrial Instrumentation


Resistive-, capacitive-, inductive-, piezoelectric-, Hall effect sensors and associated signal conditioning circuits; transducers for industrial instrumentation: displacement (linear and angular), velocity, acceleration, force, torque, vibration, shock, pressure (including low pressure), flow (differential pressure, variable area, electromagnetic, ultrasonic, turbine and open channel flow meters) temperature (thermocouple, bolometer, RTD (3/4 wire), thermistor, pyrometer and semiconductor); liquid level, pH, conductivity and viscosity measurement.




Biomedical Instrumentation


Biomedical instruments, EEG, ECG and EMG. Clinical measurements. Ultrasonic transducers and Ultrasonography. Principles of Computer Assisted Tomography. Laser Applications in Biomedical Fields, B.P measurement, patient monitoring system, blood PH measurement, blood PO2, PCO2, CPR, complete blood gas analyser. MRI, and ultrasonic imaging systems, x-ray machine, x-ray computed tomography, basic NMR components, physics of ultrasonic rays, A-scanner, B-scanner, echocardiograph, display devices for ultra sonic imaging. External pacemaker, implantable pace maker, programmable pace maker, leads and electrodes used, DC defibrillators, electrodes used, implantable defibrillators.




Random processes: autocorrelation and power spectral density, properties of white noise, filtering of random signals through LTI systems; Analog communications: amplitude modulation and demodulation, angle modulation and demodulation, spectra of AM and FM, superheterodyne receivers, circuits for analog communications; Information theory: entropy, mutual information and channel capacity theorem; Digital communications: PCM, DPCM, digital modulation schemes, amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying (ASK, PSK, FSK), QAM, MAP and ML decoding, matched filter receiver, calculation of bandwidth, SNR and BER for digital modulation; Fundamentals of error correction, Hamming codes; Timing and frequency synchronization, inter-symbol interference and its mitigation; Basics of TDMA, FDMA, CDMA and GSM.



Electromagnetic Fields


Coulomb's Law, Electric Field Intensity, Electric Flux Density, Gauss's Law, Divergence, Electric field and potential due to point, line, plane and spherical charge distributions, Effect of dielectric medium, Capacitance of simple configurations, Biot-Savart's law, Ampere's law, Curl, Faraday's law, Lorentz force, Inductance, Magnetomotive force, Reluctance, Magnetic circuits,Self and Mutual inductance of simple configurations.

Electrostatics; Maxwell's equations: differential and integral forms and their interpretation, boundary conditions, wave equation, Poynting vector; Plane waves and properties: reflection and refraction, polarization, phase and group velocity, propagation through various media, skin depth; Transmission lines: equations, characteristic impedance, impedance matching, impedance transformation etc.


Electric circuits

Network graph, KCL, KVL, Node and Mesh analysis, Transient response of dc and ac networks, Sinusoidal steady state analysis, Resonance, Passive filters, Ideal current and voltage sources, Thevenin's theorem, Norton's theorem, Superposition theorem, Maximum power transfer theorem, Two port networks, Three phase circuits, Power and power factor in ac circuits.



Electrical machines

Single phase transformer: equivalent circuit, phasor diagram, open circuit and short circuit tests, regulation and efficiency; Three phase transformers: connections, parallel operation; Auto‐transformer, Electromechanical energy conversion principles, DC machines: separately excited, series and shunt, motoring and generating mode of operation and their characteristics, starting and speed control of dc motors; Three phase induction motors: principle of operation, types, performance, torque-speed characteristics, no-load and blocked rotor tests, equivalent circuit, starting and speed control; Operating principle of single phase induction motors; Synchronous machines: cylindrical and salient pole machines, performance, regulation and parallel operation of generators, starting of synchronous motor, characteristics; Types of losses and efficiency calculations of electric machines.


Power system

Power generation concepts, ac and dc transmission concepts, Models and performance of transmission lines and cables, Series and shunt compensation, Electric field distribution and insulators, Distribution systems, Per‐unit quantities, Bus admittance matrix, GaussSeidel and Newton-Raphson load flow methods, Voltage and Frequency control, Power factor correction, Symmetrical components, Symmetrical and unsymmetrical fault analysis, Principles of over‐current, differential and distance protection; Circuit breakers, System stability concepts, Equal area criterion.


Power electronics

Characteristics of semiconductor power devices: Diode, Thyristor, Triac, GTO, MOSFET, IGBT; DC to DC conversion: Buck, Boost and Buck-Boost converters; Single and three phase configuration of uncontrolled rectifiers, Line commutated thyristor based converters, Bidirectional ac to dc voltage source converters, Issues of line current harmonics, Power factor, Distortion factor of ac to dc converters, Single phase and three phase inverters, Sinusoidal pulse width modulation.

Microprocessor Syllabus

Microcomputer organization, different parts of microcomputer and operation, Microprocessor, Evaluation of Microprocessor, Generalized Microprocessors Architecture and operation, ALU, Register Array, Instruction execution, Bus operation, Memory array design and memory interfacing.

Detailed Architecture of 8086, Addressing Modes, Assembler directives.Data movement instructions, Arithmetic instructions, Logic Instructions and Program Control Instructions, Assembly Language Programming, system design and interrupt.

Pin functions, clock generator (8284A) operation, Bus buffering and latching, Bus timing.  Introduction to Programmable Peripheral Interface (8255), Architecture, Operation, Programming.

Introduction to Programmable Interval Timer (8254), Architecture, Operation, Programming. Introduction to Programmable Interrupt Controller (8259), Analog to digital converter (ADC0804) interface, Keyboard and Display Interface (8279), Architecture, Operation, DMA.

Pneumatic Engineering


Introduction to Pneumatics; Gas laws (Boyle's law, Charles' law, Gay-Lussac's law), General gas equation, Compressors and its types, Air Storage System, Dryers.

Elements of pneumatic system; Filter, Regulator and Lubricator (FRL) unit, Direction control valves (DCV), Flow control valve (FCV), Pressure Control Valve (PCV). Time delay, Quick Exhaust, Twin pressure and shuttle valves, Non-return valve (NRV), Pilot-operated check valves. Pneumatic Actuators, Classification and Types of Cylinders, Cushioning, Seals, ISO symbols and Applications

Electro-pneumatic circuits; switches (toggle and detent), relays, switch mode power supply (SMPS). Development of single and multiple actuator circuits, Direct and indirect actuation, speed control of cylinders, Signal Processing Elements.


Hydraulics Engineering


Introduction to Hydraulics, Pressure Measurement: Absolute, Gauge &Vacuum Pressure, Pascal's law, Hydrostatic law, Hydrostatic Static Forces on Submerged Bodies: Flat surface & Curved Surface, Buoyancy and Floatation: Archimedes's Principle, Metacenter.

Fluid Kinematics: Types of Fluid Flow, Flow rate & Continuity Equation, Fluid Dynamics: Euler's Equation, Bernoulli's theorem and Application of Bernoulli's theorem.

Flow in Pipes & Losses: Major losses & Minor losses.

Hydraulic Cylinders: Single acting, Double Acting, Special Cylinders: Special, Rod less, Telescopic. Fluid power Actuators: Linear & Rotary Actuators.  Hydraulic Pumps and its type. Hydraulic Oils: Types, Properties and applications. Hydraulic Motors: Gear Motors, LSHT Motors, Multi stroke axial piston motors, Multi stroke radial piston motors, Variable Displacement Radial piston motors.




Mechatronics and its scope: Basic Structure and Evolution, Introduction of Transducer & Sensor: Displacement, Pressure, Flow, Level and Temperature Measurements.

Signal conditioning: amplification and filtering.

PC based Control: Smart Sensor, Data Acquisition System, PLC, SCADA, DCS and HMI System. Mechanical actuation system- Kinematic chains, cams, gear-trains, Ratchet & Pawl, dampers, Bearings.

Closed loop Controllers: Performance Specifications, Delayed First and Second order system, PID Controller, ZN Tuning.

Case Studies of Mechatronic Systems: Industrial Robot, Automobile Engine Control, Vehicle Suspension Control, MEMS, CNC Machine, Gyro system, 3-D Printer.



Research Methodology

Meaning of Research, Objectives of Research, Motivation in Research, Types of Research,

Research Approaches, Significance of Research, Research Methods versus Methodology,

Research and Scientific Method, Importance of Knowing How Research is Done, Research Process, Criteria of Good Research, Problems Encountered by Researchers in India, What is a Research Problem? Selecting the Problem, Necessity of Defining the Problem, Technique Involved in Defining a Problem, Meaning of Research Design, Need for Research Design, Features of a Good Design, Important Concepts Relating to Research Design, Different Research Designs, Basic Principles of Experimental Designs,


Collection of Data through Questionnaires, Collection of Data through Schedules, Difference between Questionnaires and Schedules, Some Other Methods of Data Collection, Collection of Secondary Data, Processing Operations

Elements/Types of Analysis, Statistics in Research, Measures of Central Tendency,

Measures of Dispersion, Measures of Asymmetry (Skewness), Measures of Relationship, Simple Regression Analysis, Multiple Correlation and Regression, Partial Correlation, Association in Case of Attributes, Other Measures, Need for Sampling, Important Sampling Distributions, Central Limit Theorem, Sampling Theory.


What is a Hypothesis? Basic Concepts Concerning Testing of Hypotheses, Procedure for Hypothesis Testing, Flow Diagram for Hypothesis Testing, Measuring the Power of a Hypothesis Test, Tests of Hypotheses, Important Parametric Tests, Hypothesis Testing of Means, Hypothesis Testing for Differences between Means, Hypothesis Testing for Comparing Two Related Samples, Limitations of the Tests of Hypotheses,

Chi-square as a Test for Comparing Variance, Chi-square as a Non-parametric Test, Steps Involved in Applying Chi-square Test,

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), what is ANOVA? The Basic Principle of ANOVA, ANOVA Technique, Setting up Analysis of Variance Table, Short-cut Method for One-way ANOVA, Coding Method Two-way Important Nonparametric or Distribution-free Test,

Growth of Multivariate Techniques, Characteristics and Applications, Classification of Multivariate Techniques, Variables in Multivariate Analysis, Important Multivariate Techniques,


Significance of Report Writing, Different Steps in Writing Report, Layout of the Research Report, Types of Reports, Oral Presentation, Mechanics of Writing a Research Report, Precautions for Writing Research Reports




Basics of MATLAB matrices and vectors, matrix and array operations, Saving and loading data, plotting simple graphs, scripts and functions, Script files, Function files, Global Variables, Loops, Branches, Control flow, Advanced data objects, Multi-dimensional matrices, Structures, Applications in linear algebra curve fitting and interpolation.  Numerical integration, Ordinary differential equation. Simulink: Idea about simulink, problems based on simulink.



Manipulator kinematics ,Transformations, D-H parameters, Inverse Kinematics of manipulators,  jacobian concept for differential velocity, singularity and workspace analysis, Manipulator Dynamics ,Trajectory planning concept, Basic robot control , Path planning algorithms for wheeled robot, industrial automation



Syllabus (German) RET

1.        Landeskunde der DACHL Länder.

2.        Deutsche Literatur (Vom Anfang bis zur Gegenwart)

3.        Redewendungen

4.        Linguistik

5.        Deutsche Grammatik       



Syllabus of Banasthali Ph.D Entrance test RET for Commerce


1. Strategic Management :

Introduction to Strategic management, Fundamentals of Strategy, Purpose of Business, Goals and Objectives of Business, Vision and Mission Statements, Core Competencies of Business, Role of Strategists in Decision Making, strategists at various management levels, Types of Strategies, Limitations of Strategic Management, Strategy Analysis and its Importance, Environmental Appraisal and Scanning Techniques, Organisational Position and Strategic Advantage Profile, Strategic Management Model, Introduction to Strategy Formulation, Process in Strategy Formulation, Strategy Implementation and its Stages, Strategy Leadership and Strategy Implementation, Strategic Business Units (SBUs), Strategy Evaluation, Strategic Control, Concept of Synergy and its Meaning, Key Stakeholder's Expectations, Overview of Business Policies, Importance of Business Policies, Definitions of Policy, Procedures, Process and Programmes, Types of Policies, Corporate Culture. Business Strategies of MNCs, Recent Trends in Strategic Management


2. Ethics & Entrepreneurship:


Ethics: Introduction, Ethics and Values, Ethical Conduct and Unethical Conduct, Impact of Ethical Conduct; Conceptual definition of entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship, Historical development of entrepreneurship, The importance of small business, Type of Entrepreneurship, Features and types of businesses and entrepreneurs. Innovation and entrepreneurship, Forms of entrepreneurial organization, Sources of capital, Entrepreneurial process, Entrepreneurial strategies, Franchising, Defining the business concept, Basics of Venture Marketing, Fundamentals of entrepreneurial management, Technical and technological analysis of entrepreneurial projects

3. Taxation:

Direct and Indirect tax laws in India: Indian Income Tax Act, 1961 as amended: Background and recent developments, Integrated Goods and Services Tax Act 2017 (G S T),
The Central Goods and services Tax Act , Union territory Goods and Services Tax Act  and Goods and Services Tax (compensation to states) Act 2017, The Customs Act 1962, Goods in transit , SEZ sections and drawback sections, Wealth Tax, Gift and Entertainment tax in India


4. Auditing:

Transaction Audit, Performance Audit: Theory & Practice; the nature of different types of government audit and their special features, performance audit and develop ability to plan and conduct it, Types of Audit: Audit of Grants-in-Aid, Audit of Autonomous Bodies, Audit of transactions, Separate Audit Reports Contents and procedure, Audit of Stores & Stocks, Audit of Debt, Deposit & Remittance, Audit of Contracts, Audit of Procurement Guarantee & Liquidated Damages, Audit of Public Works, Audit of Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) & Urban Local Bodies (ULBs), Audit of transactions, Reporting: As per state acts, to Legislature, to Designated Authority. Principles of performance auditing, Planning stage, Implementation stage, Reporting stage, Follow-up stage, Quality assurance in performance audit


5. Company law & Secretarial Practices:

Company - Definition, Meaning, Nature and its Characteristics , Nature and Forms of Business, Types of Companies and their incorporation , Promoters - Meaning, Position, Duties, Rights, Responsibilities and Liabilities , Formation of Companies - Procedural Aspects , Memorandum of Association & Articles of Association and their Alteration, Contracts and Conversion of Companies, Commencement of Business,  Doctrine of Ultra-Vires, Constructive Notice, Indoor Management, Alter Ego.


Concept of Capital and Financing of Companies- Sources of Capital; Classes and Types of Shares and their issue, Alteration of Share Capital- Reduction of Capital; Buy-Back of Shares, Prospectus- meaning and Statement in Lieu of Prospectus, Allotment and Certificates - General Principles and Statutory Provisions related to Allotment; Minimum Subscription; Irregular Allotment; Procedure of Issue of Share Certificates and Warrants


6. Business Environment:

An Introduction-Introduction, Concept of  Business, Levels of the Business Environment, Economic Environment of Business, The Global Economic Environment, Economic Policies, Business and Economic Policies, Business and Society, Business and Culture , Indian Business Culture, Culture and Organizational Behavior, Political Environment and the Economic system, Types of Political Systems, Indian Constitution and Business, Changing Profile of Indian Economy , Capitalist Economy, Socialist Economy, Mixed Economy, Introduction, Regulatory Role of Government, 

Privatization: Introduction, Meaning of Privatization, Objectives of Disinvestment, Privatization / Disinvestment in India, Problems with Privatization,   Globalization: Introduction, Meaning of Globalization, Future of Globalization, Organizations to facilitate globalization


7. Corporate Governance and Business Ethics: Business Ethics: Nature, scope and purpose of ethics, Corporate Governance and the Role of Board of Directors (BOD), Corporate Governance System Worldwide, Corporate Disclosure and Investor Protection in India, Social Responsibility of Corporate, Corporate Social Reporting, Corporate Social Responsibilities (CSR), Business obligations, Social Audit and Corporate Governance


8. Accounting and Finance: Introduction of Financial accounting, concepts and conventions, accounting terms and Preparation of financial statement, Introduction of costing, Ratios, Capital Budgeting, Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis.